Presentation

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Plant Breeding and Acclimatization Institute
National Centre for Plant Genetic Resources
PLANT GENETIC CONSERVATION AND PLANT
BREEDING IN POLAND
Baltic Sea Network for Management and Conservation of Plant Genetic Resources
30th Nov. - 1st Dec. 2010 Tallinn, Estonia
Content
• Questionnaire - basic information
• Germplasm collections
– Coverage
– Structure
– Partners
– Accessions
• Plant breeding
– Organization
– Crops
– Use of wild species and land races
Country
Poland
National coordinator
Zofia Bulinska- Radomska
ECPGR Steering Committee representative
National Focal points
EURISCO
Landraces
Crop wild relatives
Marcin Zaczynski
AEGIS
Zofia Bulińska- Radomska
Has memorandum of Understanding (MoU) been signed
Yes
Have associated membership (AM) institutions
been appointed
No
Have associated membership agreements’ been established
If yes, how much in percentage?
Number of germplasm collections in the national program
No
Do you apply a quality management system in your genebank
collection
Some
Number of germplasm collections in the national programme
16 ca 75 000 accesions
The national collection - crop categories/ plant
and their wild relatives:
Cereals (Triticum spp., Secale spp., Hordeum spp., Avena spp., Panicum spp., Zea mays, Fagopyrum spp.,
triticale),
Large seed legumes (main are: Pisum spp., Vicia spp., Glycine max, Phaseolus spp.),
Small seed legumes (main are: Medicago spp., Trifolium spp. and other minor species),
Grasses (pasture, lawn and ornamental),
Oil plants (Brassica napus, Helianthus annuus, Papaver somniferum and other minor spp.),
Sugar and pasture beet plants,
Potato,
Industrial plants (Humulus spp., Nicotiana spp., Linnum spp.),
Fruit trees, shrubs and herbaceous plants (main are: Malus spp., Prunus spp., Cerasus spp., Persica spp.,
Corylus sp., Juglans regia L., Fragaria spp., Ribes nigrum spp., Rubus spp., Vitis spp., Vaccinium sp.,
Oxycoccus spp.),
Vegetable plants and mushrooms (main are: Alium spp., Brassica spp., Raphanus spp., Asparagus spp.,
Lactuca spp, Antheum spp., Daucus spp., Cucumis spp., Cucurbita spp., Phaseolus spp., Licopersicon spp.),
Medicinal and aromatic plants (main are: Hyssopus officinalis, Satureja montana, Thymus sp., Origanum
vulgare, Hierochloë austral Roem. & Schult., Armoracia rusticana, Rheum rhaponticum, Archangelica
officinalis Hoffm., Centaurium umbellatum Gilib., Arnica montana L., Convallaria majalis L., Asarum
europaeum L., Arctostaphylos uva-ursi L., Spreng., Adonis vernalis L., Colchicum autumnale L., Asperula
odorata L., Helichrysum arenarium sp.).
Ornamental plants (main are: Lilium spp., Narcissus spp., Tulipa spp., Gladiolus spp.),
Alternative plants (for use as source of energy, for recultivation of devastated lands by industry,
Weedy endangered species.
Weedy species collection
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Agrostemma githago L.
Agrostemma L.
Anagallis arvensis L.
Anchusa L.
Arenaria serpyllifolia L.
Briza L.
Bromus L.
Camelina Crantz
Camelina alyssum (Mill.) Thell.
Camelina microcarpa Andrz. ex DC.
Centaurea cyanus L.
Consolida Gray
Digitaria Haller
Erodium L'Hér.
Euphorbia L.
Fumaria L.
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Galeopsis tetrahit L.
Lithospermum L.
Lolium remotum Schrank
Neslia paniculata (L.) Desv.
Neslia paniculata (L.) Desv.
Papaver L.
Scleranthus annus Knawel
Silene L.
Spergula arvensis L.
Thlaspi arvense L.
Valerianella Mill.
Veronica L.
Vicia L.
Crop/Group of crops
Number of
accessions
Percentage
Cereals
26085
35.6
PBAI, ULR, OB,
IGR
Grasses
16369
22.3
PBAI,
Vegetables
8931
12.2
IPF
Large seed legumes
1080
1.5
PBAI, IGR,
Small seed legumes
6921
9.5
PBAI
Oil and industrial crops
4103
5.6
ISSPC, INF
Fruit trees
4500
6.1
IPF,SP, OB, ARB
Fruit shrubs
1032
1.4
IPF,SP, OB. ARB,
ULSP
Potato
1334
1.8
PBAI
1002
1.4
IPF
780
1.1
IMP, SGGW
1128
1.5
PBAI
Medicinal and aromatic
Other
Curator *
* Plant Breeding and Acclimatization Institute – Radzików, (PBAI), Institute of Vegetable Crops Skierniewice, (IVC), Institute of
Pomology and Floriculture – Skierniewice, (IPF), Research Institute of Medicinal Plants – Poznań, (IMP), Institute of Natural Fibres –
Poznań (INF), University of Life Science – Lublin, (ULS), University of Life Science – Poznań (ULSP), Warsaw University of Life
Science – Warsaw (SGGW) Botanical Garden of Polish Academy of Science – Powsin (OB), Institute of Soil Science and Plant
Cultivation – Puławy (ISSPC), Institute of Plant Genetic of Polish Academy of Science – Poznań (IGR), Arboretum and Institute of
Physiography in Bolestraszyce (ARB), Associatin of the Chełminski and Nadwislański Scienic Parks – Świecie (SP)
Partners
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Plant Institute of Plant Genetic of Polish Academy
of Science in Poznań,
Institute of Pomology and Floriculture in Skierniewice,
Institute of Vegetable Crops in Skierniewice,
Institute of Soil Science and Plant Cultivation in Puławy,
Research Institute of Natural Fibres and Medicinal Plants in Poznań,
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Botanical Garden of Polish Academy of Science in Powsin,
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Warsaw University of Life Science in Warsaw,
University of Life Science in Lublin,
University of Life Science in Olsztyn,
University of Life Science in Poznań, Experimrntal Station in Baranowo,
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Association of the Chełminski and Nadwislański Scienic Parks in Świecie,
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Arboretum and Institute of Physiography in Bolestraszyce,
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Plant Breeding Ltd. Co. in Palikije,
Plant Breeding Ltd. Co. In Tulce,
,
Plant Breeding Smolice Ltd. Co - IHAR Group,
Plant Breeding Strzelce Ltd. Co. - IHAR Group.
15 breeding companies under supervision of Agency for
Agriculture Real Estate Management
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„DANKO” PB Ltd. Co. in Choryn – cereals, turnip, beans, Amaranthus
HRR PB Ltd. Co. in Kobierzyce - cereals, sweet and fodder maize
MHR PB Ltd. Co in Kraków- cereals, fagopyrum, grasses legumes, sainfoin
(Onobrichis) , fodder beet, fodder carrot
KHBC PB Ltd. Co. in Staszkowie – sugar beet, sorgo
PB Ltd. Co. Szelejewo - cereals, grasses, large seed legumes , lucerne
PB Ltd. Co. In Tulce – cereals grasses, pulses,
small seed legumes, Phacelia blue
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PMHZ PB Ltd. Co. in.Strzekęcinie - potato
PB Ltd. Co. in Szyldak - potato
PHiRO Ltd.Co. w Krzeszowicach - tomato
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PB Ltd. Co. Bronisze - ornamental plants
PB Ltd. Co. Polan in Krakowie – vegetables,
ornamental plants
„Spójnia” HiNO Ltd.Co. in Nochowie - vegetables
PlantiCo Ltd. Co in Zielonki –
vegetables, ornamental plants
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Plant Breeding companies - IHAR Group
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Plant Breeding Smolice Ltd. Co. - 3 stations
maize,bread and durum wheat, rye, triticale, barley lupine, double low rape,
also maintenance breeding and seed production
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Plant Breeding Strzelce Ltd. Co. - 4 stations
spring and winter wheat, spring barley, oat,
triticale, faba bean,winter and spring rapeseed
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Plant Breeding Bartażek Ltd. Co.
grasses and small seed legumes
- forage grasses,
- turf grasses
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Plant Breeding Zamarte Ltd. Co.
potato varieties suitable for processing technologies
Use of PGRFA from polish collections
Year
Samples distributed
abroad
2004
24 705
24 014
691
2005
61 796
61 047
749
2006
34 365
34 022
343
2007
67 519
66 735
784
2008
103 437
102 887
550
2004
2008
291 822
288 705
3 117
Local distribution
Total distribution
Podmioty: hodowcy, rolnicy,
instytuty naukowe,
banki genów, ogrody botaniczne,
600 distributed
to breeders
jednostki samorządowe, fundacje, depozyty patentowe
Major constraints to the use of genetic resources
• Polish breeding companies, although rich in tradition, skills and
successes, are uncertain of the future. Recent adjustment of the
national policy to that of EU created a critical situation in plant
breeding, because no effective system of financing breeding
activities has been established to replace the previous one of state
budget support. Creation of a market system ensuring a profit from
the released cultivars requires more time. In this situation breeders
more eagerly reject any activities, which will not deliver new cultivars
in relatively short time.
• The breeders, restricted in their ability to take risk, expect from
collaborating scientists high quality enhanced materials. They would
like to have the back-crossing series completed and the desired
characters separated from the negative side effects and
correlations. Otherwise they tend rather to reject the material than to
continue its improvement.
Use of wild species and land races (incomplete)
Cereals and grasses
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Triticum aestivum, T.durum - Haynaldia villosa, Triticum Tauschi,
T. speltoides, T .monococcum,T. dicoccoides, T. ovatum, T. triuncialis,
T. monococcum, Aegilops ventricosa, A. juvenalis, A. kotschyi (resistance to fungal
diseases and pests, resistance to drought and sprouting, protein quantity and quality,
new protein subunits for baking quality),
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x Triticosecale –T. timopheevi (male-sterilizing cytoplasm)
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Hordeum vulgare - local forms from north-eastern Africa, Middle East and Southern Asia
(disease resistance)
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Secale cereale -Haynaldia villosa S. cereale, ssp.ancestrale, ssp. dighoricum, ssp. afghanicum,
ssp. segetale, S. vavilovii, S. silvestre, S.strictum, (disease resistance, male sterility, milling and
baking quality)
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Lolium multiflorum, L. perenne - Festuca arundinacea (resistance to drought and low
temperatures), Festuca pratensis (resistance to diseases and low temperatures, durable green
mass), wild Polish ecotypes of L. perenne (rust resistance, turf quality)
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Deschampsia caespitosa (tufted hairgrass) – wild Polish ecotypes (rust resistance, turf quality)
Legumes
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Pisum sativum - Pisum fulvum (ascochyta blight resistance), Pisum elatius, P.
abyssinicum
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Lupinus luteus - wild populations from Iberian peninsula ,L. hispanicus (ascochyta
blight resistance)
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Lupinus angustifolius - wild forms from the Mediterranean region (ascochyta blight
resistance)
Vegetables
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Capsicum annuum - Capsicum frutescens (fruit size and dry
matter content), C. chinense (capsaicinoides content,
resistance to viral diseases)
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Allium cepa - A. fistulosum, A. roylei (mildew resistance)
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Solanum tuberesum - S. gourlayi, S. megistacrolobum, S. tarijense,
S.vernei, S. yungasense, (starch content, resistance to viral diseases), S.
microdontum, S. phureja, S. verrucosum, S. stenotomum, S. michoacanum S.
nigrum, S. stoloniferum, S. demissum (resistance to late blight and viral diseases)
Other
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Brassica napus - Brassica campestris (male sterility), B. oleracea ssp. botrytis
(increase of erucic acid content)
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Rhododendron catawbiense,R. yakushimanum - Rhododendron aureum, R.
brachycarpum,R.. purdomii (winterhardiness, variation)
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Nicotioana tabacum - Nicotiana alata (resistance to TSWV virus), N.africana (PVY
virus resistance), N. wuttkei (male sterility)
Number of projects
Projects
related to
the
utilization
of genetic
resources
in 2008
Related to genetic resources
Crop
Total
Number
New
variation
Wide
cro
ssin
g
Phytopathology
1.
Wheat
16
7
6
2.
Barley
8
1
1
3.
Oat
8
3
2
2
4.
Triticale
13
4
3
1
5.
Rye
8
2
2
6.
Rape
11
2
1
7.
Maize
6
1
1
8.
Potato
10
2
9.
Beet
3
10.
Grasses
and legumes
7
11.
Pulses
5
1
1
Total
95
23
15
2
2
7
Thank You !
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