13-My Gasteromycetes - My Webspace files

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Hymenomycetes:
Gasteromycetes
Mycology (Bio 594, Special Topics)
M. Marshall, 2013
Shippensburg University
(See last slide for additional credits)
Agaricomycotina
From Hibbett (2006). Mycologia 98: 917--925
Gasteromycetes
• Basidiospores mature inside basidiocarp
• Basidiospores not forcibly discharged
(statismospores)
• Do not comprise a monophyletic (natural)
group; these forms have evolved at least four
different times
• Wide range of different types of basidiocarps,
both epigeous and hypogeous
Orders
•
•
•
•
•
Lycoperdales – puffballs
Tulostomatales – stalked puffballs
Sclerodermatales – earth balls
Phallales – stink horns
Nidulariales – bird’s nest fungi
Terminology
• Statismospores
– Basidiospores
that are formed
symmetrically on
sterigmata and
are not forcibly
discharged
• Gleba
More
Terminology
– Fertile portion, contains
basidia and
basidiospores
– May contain capillitium
(coarse, thick-walled
hyphae) intersperced
www.bioimages.org.uk/.../ 01-10-07/01J07K+3.jpg
Image of Calvatia gigantea from Eugen Gramberg (1913) Pilze
unserer Heimat
Even more
Terminology
• Peridioles
– Small structures
containing basidiospores
and basidia , may be
actively ejected by rain
splash, etc.
• Peridium
– Outer covering of
basidiocarp; may be
multilayered
Order Lycoperdales
• Includes common puffballs and earthstars
• World-wide distribution
• Most species are saprotrophs, some are
mycorrhizal
Lycoperdales Morphology
• Basidiocarps often have sterile subgleba that
gives them a stalked appearance
• Peridium consists of 2-4 layers
– Endo-, meso- and exoperidium
• Immature gleba is white and uniform
• Mature gleba is dark and powdery
– contains basidiospores and capillitium
• Basidiospores dark, globose, ornamented
Puffball Morphology
Puffball
Morphology
Common taxa
• Lycoperdon
– Common puffballs, exoperidium often warty and
wearing away to reveal smooth, papery
endoperidium
• Geastrum
– Earthstars
– Exoperidium + mesoperidium are tough and split
in stellate manner; endoperidium thin and papery
G. Barron
Lycoperdon
Miller and Miller 1988
From Miller and Miller, 1988
Geastrum (from C. Stiles)
Order Tulastomatales
• Stalked puffballs; stalk is often below ground
• Basidiospores dark, globose, warted at
maturity
• Saprotrophs
• Representatives:
– Calostoma – glutinous stalk; temperate and
tropical regions
– Tulastoma – dry stalk; arid regions
Calostoma cinnabarina
http://plantpath.osu.edu/faculty/ellett/cinnabarina.html
Tulastoma (from Miller and Miller, 1988)
Order Sclerodermatales
• Earth balls and false earth stars
• One-layered peridium in most taxa; peridium wears
away to expose gleba
• Immature gleba is dark
• Gleba organized into peridioles or locules
• Basidiospores reticulate to warted, thick-walled
• Ectomycorrhizal
– Pinaceae and Fagaceae in Northern Hemisphere
– Also with Myrtaceae in Southern Hemisphere
Common Taxa
• Astraeus
– False earth star; peridium two-layered and separates
• Pisolithus
– Large, unattractive, club-shaped basidiocarps with
persistent peridioles
• Scleroderma
– Earth balls; look like tough, above-ground truffle due to
thick peridium and irregular shape; basidia formed in
locules
http://archivioforum.funghiitaliani.it/Files/Astraeus.jpg
Astraeus (from Miller and Miller, 1988)
From Miller and Miller, 1988
Pisolithus tinctorius (B. Callan)
Pisolithus tinctorius (from B. Callan)
http://www.mykoweb.com/CAF/species/Scleroderma_cepa.html
Scleroderma cepa
Scleroderma citrina (from G. Barron)
Order Nidulariales
• Bird’s nest fungi and cannon ball fungus
• Basidiocarps oval, urn- or trumpet-shaped
• Formed in clusters on dead wood
(saprotrophs)
• One- to three-layered peridium
• Basidia produced in persistent, thick-walled
peridioles
– Forcibly discharged in Sphaerobolus
– Rain splashed in bird’s nest fungi
Common taxa
• Cyathus
– Urn-shaped, dark peridioles, funiculus
• Crucibulum
– Cup-shaped, dull white peridioles, funiculus
• Nidula
– Cup-shaped, pale brown peridioles, no funiculus
• Sphaerobolus
– Cannon-ball fungus; one peridiole, forcibly discharged by
evagination of endoperidium
From Miller and Miller, 1988
Rain-splash peridiole dispersal in Cyathus spp.
Cyathus striatus
Epiphragm
Peridioles
Funicular cord
Crucibulum
Photo by Guillermo Pimentel
Sphaerobolus
Sphaerobolus (MykoWeb)
Order Phallales
• Stinkhorns
• Most species are saprotrophs
• Gleba dissolves into putrid mass
(methylmercaptan, hydrogen sulfide = stench!)
that attracts insects that disperse spores
• Immature basidiocarps form egg-stage
• Gleba formed on receptacle
• Basidiocarps expand rapidly at maturity
From Miller and Miller, 1988
Mutinus
From Miller and Miller, 1988
Clathrus
Photos by Tom Volk
Dictyophora
Zhusun Mushroom/
Bamboo Fungus
“A special fungus found in bamboo
groves. White in color and lamp
shade-like in shape, the mushroom is
both delicious and nutritious.”
http://www.ilmyco.gen.chicago.il.us/Terms/Images/PhallGramb373.jpg
Gastroid and Secotioid Taxa
• Closely related to agarics and boletes
• Gastroid/secotioid taxa have evolved from
ballistosporic forms:
– Gastroid - Hypogeous basidiocarps
– Secotioid - Epigeous basidiocarps, but pileus may
fail to expand, gills may be deformed
Examples
• Russula
– Secotioid taxa: Elasmomyces, Macowanites
– Gastroid taxa: Martellia, Gymnomyces
• Suillus
– Gastroid taxon: Rhizopogon
Rhizopogon (MykoWeb)
Credits
This presentation has been modified from one posted on
the web by Dr. Lori Carris, Washigton State University
Plant Pathology Dept. from her course: Plant Path 521,
Mycology.
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