Hymenomycetes: Gasteromycetes Mycology (Bio 594, Special Topics) M. Marshall, 2013 Shippensburg University (See last slide for additional credits) Agaricomycotina From Hibbett (2006). Mycologia 98: 917--925 Gasteromycetes • Basidiospores mature inside basidiocarp • Basidiospores not forcibly discharged (statismospores) • Do not comprise a monophyletic (natural) group; these forms have evolved at least four different times • Wide range of different types of basidiocarps, both epigeous and hypogeous Orders • • • • • Lycoperdales – puffballs Tulostomatales – stalked puffballs Sclerodermatales – earth balls Phallales – stink horns Nidulariales – bird’s nest fungi Terminology • Statismospores – Basidiospores that are formed symmetrically on sterigmata and are not forcibly discharged • Gleba More Terminology – Fertile portion, contains basidia and basidiospores – May contain capillitium (coarse, thick-walled hyphae) intersperced www.bioimages.org.uk/.../ 01-10-07/01J07K+3.jpg Image of Calvatia gigantea from Eugen Gramberg (1913) Pilze unserer Heimat Even more Terminology • Peridioles – Small structures containing basidiospores and basidia , may be actively ejected by rain splash, etc. • Peridium – Outer covering of basidiocarp; may be multilayered Order Lycoperdales • Includes common puffballs and earthstars • World-wide distribution • Most species are saprotrophs, some are mycorrhizal Lycoperdales Morphology • Basidiocarps often have sterile subgleba that gives them a stalked appearance • Peridium consists of 2-4 layers – Endo-, meso- and exoperidium • Immature gleba is white and uniform • Mature gleba is dark and powdery – contains basidiospores and capillitium • Basidiospores dark, globose, ornamented Puffball Morphology Puffball Morphology Common taxa • Lycoperdon – Common puffballs, exoperidium often warty and wearing away to reveal smooth, papery endoperidium • Geastrum – Earthstars – Exoperidium + mesoperidium are tough and split in stellate manner; endoperidium thin and papery G. Barron Lycoperdon Miller and Miller 1988 From Miller and Miller, 1988 Geastrum (from C. Stiles) Order Tulastomatales • Stalked puffballs; stalk is often below ground • Basidiospores dark, globose, warted at maturity • Saprotrophs • Representatives: – Calostoma – glutinous stalk; temperate and tropical regions – Tulastoma – dry stalk; arid regions Calostoma cinnabarina http://plantpath.osu.edu/faculty/ellett/cinnabarina.html Tulastoma (from Miller and Miller, 1988) Order Sclerodermatales • Earth balls and false earth stars • One-layered peridium in most taxa; peridium wears away to expose gleba • Immature gleba is dark • Gleba organized into peridioles or locules • Basidiospores reticulate to warted, thick-walled • Ectomycorrhizal – Pinaceae and Fagaceae in Northern Hemisphere – Also with Myrtaceae in Southern Hemisphere Common Taxa • Astraeus – False earth star; peridium two-layered and separates • Pisolithus – Large, unattractive, club-shaped basidiocarps with persistent peridioles • Scleroderma – Earth balls; look like tough, above-ground truffle due to thick peridium and irregular shape; basidia formed in locules http://archivioforum.funghiitaliani.it/Files/Astraeus.jpg Astraeus (from Miller and Miller, 1988) From Miller and Miller, 1988 Pisolithus tinctorius (B. Callan) Pisolithus tinctorius (from B. Callan) http://www.mykoweb.com/CAF/species/Scleroderma_cepa.html Scleroderma cepa Scleroderma citrina (from G. Barron) Order Nidulariales • Bird’s nest fungi and cannon ball fungus • Basidiocarps oval, urn- or trumpet-shaped • Formed in clusters on dead wood (saprotrophs) • One- to three-layered peridium • Basidia produced in persistent, thick-walled peridioles – Forcibly discharged in Sphaerobolus – Rain splashed in bird’s nest fungi Common taxa • Cyathus – Urn-shaped, dark peridioles, funiculus • Crucibulum – Cup-shaped, dull white peridioles, funiculus • Nidula – Cup-shaped, pale brown peridioles, no funiculus • Sphaerobolus – Cannon-ball fungus; one peridiole, forcibly discharged by evagination of endoperidium From Miller and Miller, 1988 Rain-splash peridiole dispersal in Cyathus spp. Cyathus striatus Epiphragm Peridioles Funicular cord Crucibulum Photo by Guillermo Pimentel Sphaerobolus Sphaerobolus (MykoWeb) Order Phallales • Stinkhorns • Most species are saprotrophs • Gleba dissolves into putrid mass (methylmercaptan, hydrogen sulfide = stench!) that attracts insects that disperse spores • Immature basidiocarps form egg-stage • Gleba formed on receptacle • Basidiocarps expand rapidly at maturity From Miller and Miller, 1988 Mutinus From Miller and Miller, 1988 Clathrus Photos by Tom Volk Dictyophora Zhusun Mushroom/ Bamboo Fungus “A special fungus found in bamboo groves. White in color and lamp shade-like in shape, the mushroom is both delicious and nutritious.” http://www.ilmyco.gen.chicago.il.us/Terms/Images/PhallGramb373.jpg Gastroid and Secotioid Taxa • Closely related to agarics and boletes • Gastroid/secotioid taxa have evolved from ballistosporic forms: – Gastroid - Hypogeous basidiocarps – Secotioid - Epigeous basidiocarps, but pileus may fail to expand, gills may be deformed Examples • Russula – Secotioid taxa: Elasmomyces, Macowanites – Gastroid taxa: Martellia, Gymnomyces • Suillus – Gastroid taxon: Rhizopogon Rhizopogon (MykoWeb) Credits This presentation has been modified from one posted on the web by Dr. Lori Carris, Washigton State University Plant Pathology Dept. from her course: Plant Path 521, Mycology.