Consumers?

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Topic 5: Ecology and evolution (16 hours)
5.2 Ecosystems and Communities
March 27th/2011
Adapted from: Taylor, S. (2010). Ecosystems and Communities (Presentation).
Science Video Resources. [Online] Wordpress. Retrieved from http://ibiology.net/ibdpbio/05-ecology-and-evolution/02-communities-ecosystems/
Ecology
from Greek:
οἶκος, "house“
λογία, "study of"
http://gabiecologia.blogspot.com/
5.1.1 Define species, habitat, population,
community, ecosystem and ecology.
5.1.2 Distinguish between
autotroph and heterotroph.
5.1.3 Distinguish between consumers,
detritivores and saprotrophs.
Consumers?
Primary consumers?
Secondary consumers?
Producers?
Autotrophs?
Heterotrophs?
Detritivores?
Saprotrophs?
http://dbg-englishclassroom.blogspot.com/2011/11/animals_17.html
Consumers?
Producers?
Autotrophs?
Heterotrophs?
Detritivores?
Saprotrophs?
http://guides.wikinut.com/img/23pyri.8.frh-6iy/Classification-of-Organisms
5.1.6 Define trophic level.
5.1.4 Describe what is meant by a food chain, giving three
examples, each with at least three linkages (four organisms).
http://www.mhhe.com/biosci/esp/2001_gbio
/folder_structure/ec/m3/s2/ecm3s2_6.htm
5.1.4 Describe what is meant by a food chain, giving three
examples, each with at least three linkages (four organisms).
5.1.5 Describe what is meant by a food web.
The diagram below shows an ocean food web.
The arrows indicate the energy flow.
[Source: www.ciesin.org/docs/011-558/fig4-3.gif]
(a) Indicate the three producers of this food
web.
(1)
(b) Identify the trophic level of each organism
named below. On the diagram opposite, mark
clearly the arrows of energy flow that support
your choice.
(i) Macrozooplankton
(1)
(ii) Weddell seal
(1)
(c) Determine the maximum percentage of
energy that may reach emperor penguins from
primary producers.
5.1.7 Deduce the trophic level of
organisms in a food chain and a food web.
(a)
nanophytoplankton, bacteria, phytoplankton
1
All three needed to receive [1].
(b) (i)
1° / primary or 2° / secondary consumer (depending on chain
marked)
1
(ii) 2° / secondary, 3° / tertiary or 4° / quaternary consumer (depending on
chain marked) 1
Marks may not be given if the arrows are not marked on the diagram.
(c)
1 / 2% 1
(d)
more macrozooplankton / phytoplankton eaten / numbers fall;
natural selection for small / camouflaged / fast growing / fast swimming
plankton;
competition between small fish is more intense;
natural selection among small fish for faster swimming / more skill in feeding;
more food for predators of small fish / named predator of small fish;
natural selection among predators for feeding on small fish / not on other prey;
changes in the gene pool / allele frequencies;
3 max
[7]
5.1.8 Construct a food web containing up to
10 organisms, using appropriate information.
5.1.9 State that light is the initial energy source
for almost all communities.
5.1.10 Explain the energy flow in a food chain.
5.1.11 State that energy transformations are
never 100% efficient.
5.1.12 Explain reasons for the shape of
pyramids of energy.
http://www.nodvin.net/snhu/SCI219/demos/Chapte
r_3/Chapter_03/Present/animations/32_2_1a.html
5.1.13 Explain that energy enters and leaves
ecosystems, but nutrients must be recycled.
5.1.14 State that saprotrophic bacteria and
fungi (decomposers) recycle nutrients.
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