Concurency and synchronisation patterns

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Concurency and synchronisation
patterns
based on
Pattern-Oriented Software Architecture, Patterns for
Concurrent and Networked Objects, Volume 2
by Douglas Schmidt, Michael Stal, Hans Rohnert and
Frank Buschmann
Design Pattern
• A design pattern is a general reusable solution
to a commonly occurring problem in software
design.
Agenda
• Synchronisation patterns
– Scoped Locking
– Strategized Locking
– Thread-Safe Interface
• Concurency patterns
– Active Object
– Leader/Followers
Scoped Locking
The Scoped Locking C++ idiom ensures that a
lock is acquired when control enters a scope and
released automatically when control leaves the
scope, regardless of the return path from the
scope.
Scoped Locking - Implementation
class Thread_Mutex_Guard {
public:
Thread_Mutex_Guard (Thread_Mutex &lock) : lock_ (&lock), owner_ (false)
{
lock_->acquire ();
owner_ = true;
}
~Thread_Mutex_Guard () {
if (owner_) lock_->release ();
}
private:
Thread_Mutex *lock_;
bool owner_;
Thread_Mutex_Guard (const Thread_Mutex_Guard&);
void operator= (const Thread_Mutex_Guard &);
};
Scoped Locking – Explicit Accessors
class Thread_Mutex_Guard {
public:
Thread_Mutex_Guard (Thread_Mutex &lock) : lock_ (&lock), owner_ (false) {
acquire ();
}
~Thread_Mutex_Guard () {
release ();
}
void acquire () {
lock_->acquire ();
owner_ = true;
}
void release () {
if (owner_) {
owner_ = false;
lock_->release ();
}
}
private:
Thread_Mutex *lock_;
bool owner_;
};
Scoped Locking – Example
class Test {
public:
void test_function_1 {
Thread_Mutex_Guard quard(&lock_);
//do something
}
void test_function_2 {
Thread_Mutex_Guard quard(&lock_);
//do something
}
private:
Thread_Mutex lock_;
};
Scoped Locking - Consequences
• Benefits
– Increased robustness
• Liabilities
– Potential for deadlock when used recursively.
– Limitations with language-specific semantics.
Thread_Mutex_Guard guard (&lock_);
Table_Entry *entry = lookup_or_create (path);
if (entry == 0)
pthread_cancel(pthread_self());
– Excessive compiler warnings
Strategized Locking
Similar to Scoped Locking but pass template or
polymorphic lock object to the guard
constructor.
class Lock {
public:
virtual void acquire () = 0;
virtual void release () = 0;
};
Strategized Locking - Example
class Lock {
public:
virtual void acquire () = 0;
virtual void release () = 0;
};
class Thread_Mutex_Lock
: public Lock {
public:
virtual void acquire () {
lock_.acquire ();
}
virtual void release () {
lock_.release ();
}
private:
Thread_Mutex lock_;
};
Scoped Locking – Example
class Test {
public:
void test_function_1 {
Thread_Mutex_Guard quard(&lock_);
//do something
}
void test_function_2 {
Thread_Mutex_Guard quard(&lock_);
//do something
}
private:
Thread_Mutex lock_;
};
Strategized Locking - Example
template <typename T> class quard_t {
private:
bool
locked;
T&
protector;
guard_t(const guard_t& orig);
public:
guard_t(T& _protector) : protector(_protector), locked(false) {
protector.acquire();
}
virtual ~guard_t() {
if (locked) protector.release();
}
void release() {
if (locke) { protector.release(); locked = false;}
};
void acquire() {protector.acquire(); locked = true;};
};
Scoped Locking – Example
class Test {
public:
void test_function_1 {
quard< Thread_Mutex > quard(&lock_);
//do something
}
void test_function_2 {
quard< Thread_Mutex > quard(&lock_);
//do something
}
private:
Thread_Mutex lock_;
};
Strategized Locking - Example
typedef File_Cache<Null_Mutex> Content_Cache;
typedef File_Cache<Thread_Mutex> Content_Cache;
typedef File_Cache<RW_Lock> Content_Cache;
typedef File_Cache<Semaphore_Lock> Content_Cache;
Strategized Locking - Consequences
• Benefits
– Enhanced flexibility and customization.
– Decreased maintenance effort for components.
– Improved reuse.
• Liabilities
– Obtrusive locking.
– Over-engineering.
Thread-Safe Interface
The Thread-Safe Interface design pattern
minimizes locking overhead and ensures that
intra-component method calls do not incur 'selfdeadlock' by trying to reacquire a lock that is
held by the component already.
Thread-Safe Interface Example
template <class LOCK>
class File_Cache {
public:
const void *lookup (const string &path) const {
Guard<LOCK> guard (lock_);
return lookup_i (path);
}
void insert (const string &path) {
Guard<LOCK> guard (lock_);
insert_i (path);
}
private:
mutable LOCK lock_;
const void *lookup_i (const string &path) const {
const void *file_pointer = check_cache_i(path);
if (file_pointer == 0) {
insert_i (path);
file_pointer = check_cache_i (path);
}
return file_pointer;
}
const void *check_cache_i (const string &) const {}
void insert_i (const string &) {}
Consequences
• Benefits
– Increased robustness.
– Enhanced performance.
– Simplification of software.
• Liabilities
– Additional indirection and extra methods.
– Potential deadlock.
– Potential for misuse.
– Potential overhead.
Active Object
The Active Object design pattern decouples
method execution from method invocation to
enhance concurrency and simplify synchronized
access to objects that reside in their own
threads of control.
Active Object
• Methods invoked on an object concurrently
should not block the entire process,
• Synchronized access to shared objects should
be simple,
• Applications should be designed to
transparently leverage the parallelism
available on a hardware/software platform
Active Object
Active Object
Consequences
• Benefits
– Enhance application concurrency and simplify synchronization
complexity,
– Transparently leverage available parallelism,
– Method execution order can differ from method invocation order
• Liabilities
– Performance overhead.
– Complicated debugging.
Leader/Followers
The Leader/Followers design pattern provides a
concurrency model where multiple threads
can efficiently demultiplex events and
dispatch event handlers that process I/O
handles shared by the threads.
Leader/Followers
• Efficient demultiplexing
of I/O handles and
threads,
• Minimize concurrencyrelated overhead,
• Prevent race conditions
Leader/Followers
Leader/Followers
Leader/Followers
Leader/Followers
Consequences
• Benefits
– Performance enhancements.
• It enhances CPU cache affinity and eliminates unbound allocation and data buffer sharing
between threads,
• It minimizes locking overhead by not exchanging data between threads,
• It can minimize priority inversion because no extra queuing is introduced in the server,
• It does not require a context switch to handle each event
– Programming simplicity.
• Liabilities
– Implementation complexity.
– Lack of flexibility.
– Network I/O bottlenecks.
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