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Extension Education
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Home Science Facilitator Jasmina Sangani
Introduction to Extension
Education
 Means for dissemination of education and information
 Helps to change human behaviour through use of knowledge, skill
and attitude
 Was first implemented in Britain in 1894
 Main aim: to reach out to the rural and farming population for
promoting social and cultural development.
 Definition: It is an applied science consisting of content derived
from research accumulated field experiences and relevant
experiences drawn from behavioural sciences and combined with
useful technology into a philosophy, principles and methods
focused on the problems of out of school education for adults and
youth.
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Home Science Facilitator Jasmina Sangani
Introduction to Extension
Education
 Purpose: To bring about a change in attitudes and practices
of the people with whom work is done.
 Results: Narrows the gap between what is and what is
required or desired.
 It encompasses the educational, economic, cultural, social
and communal objective of learning and teaching.
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Home Science Facilitator Jasmina Sangani
How can Extension Education be
effective?
 It should be:
 humanitarian
 realistic
 flexible
 based on the principle of learning by doing
 cater to the needs and interests of people at grass root levels
 needs to be regularly assessed and evaluated
 should include feedback from participants and local authorities
 needs to be well planned
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Home Science Facilitator Jasmina Sangani
Principles of Extension Education that
need to be catered to
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Principle of Voluntary Education
Principle of Self- Help
Principle of Satisfaction
Principle of Self- Dependence
Principle of Motivation and Encouragement
Principle of Cooperation and Participation
Principle of Local Leadership
Principle of whole family participation
Principle of slow and a continuous process
In agreement with the National Policies and Programmes
Undertaken by Trained Subject matter specialists
Be based on applied technology and science, and in accordance with
appropriate teaching method
Home Science Facilitator Jasmina Sangani
Communication
 Essential for the functioning of any programme
 It is a two way process by which the messages are transmitted from
the source to the receiver.
 It is the process by which information, decisions and directions pass
through a social system and the ways in which knowledge, opinions
and attitudes are formed or modified
 It is a process by which two or more people exchange ideas, facts,
feelings or impressions in a way that each gains common
understanding of a message bringing the sender and receiver together.
 Gestures and symbols are very important in the process of
communication
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Home Science Facilitator Jasmina Sangani
Visual Aids
 Ensure more effective communication.
 Attracts the receiver through the sense organs
 Useful in achieving the objectives by creating interest, motivation,
desire and activity.
 Classification of audio visual is based on the sense organs involved:
 Audio- radio, tape recorder, telephone, public address system,
songs, slogans etc.
 Visual- These are of two types:
 Non- projected- posters, charts, pictures, models, flash cards,
cartoons, black- board, bulleti- boards, handbills, paper,
clippings, exhibitions
 Projected- Slides, film strips, silent films, overhead projections,
opaque projections, slide projections, close circuit TV, films,
television, VCR, drama, puppetry and songs and dance
programmes
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Home Science Facilitator Jasmina Sangani
Types of Communication
 One-way Communication (Didactic Method)
 The flow of communication is one way from the
communicator to the audience.
 e.g. lecture method in class rooms
 Drawbacks
 knowledge is imposed
 learning is authoritative
 less audience participation
 no feedback
 doe not influence human behaviour
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Home Science Facilitator Jasmina Sangani
Types of Communication
 Two- way communication (Socratic Method)
 Both the communicator and the audience take
part
 The audience may raise questions, and add their
own information, ideas and opinions to the
subject.
 Learning process is active and democratic
 More likely to influence behaviour than oneway communication
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Home Science Facilitator Jasmina Sangani
Types of Communication
 Verbal Communication
 The traditional way of communication has been
by word of mouth.
 The advent of written and printed matter are of
comparatively recent origin.
 Direct verbal communication by word of
mouth may be loaded with hidden meanings
 It is persuasive.
 Non- direct or written communication may not
be as persuasive as the spoken word
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Home Science Facilitator Jasmina Sangani
Types of Communication
 Non- verbal Communication
Communication without words
It includes a whole range of bodily
movements, postures, gestures, facial
expressions etc.
Silence is non-verbal communication
It speaks louder than words
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Home Science Facilitator Jasmina Sangani
Types of Communication
Communication
Formal
Communication
- follows lines
of authority
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Home Science Facilitator Jasmina Sangani
Informal
Communication
- grape- vine
communication
- exists in all
organizations
- could be more active
if the formal channels
do not cater to the
information needs
Types of Communication
 Persuasion (influence)
 art of winning friends and influencing people
 does not employ force or deliberate manipulation
 Definition: A conscious attempt by one individual to
change or influence the general beliefs, understanding,
values and behaviour of another individual or group of
individuals in some desired way
 Persuasive communication is more effective than coercion
or authoritative communication
 It can change lifestyle and modify the risk factors of
diseases
 When persuasive communication is deliberately employed
to
manipulate
feelings,
attitudes
and
beliefs,
it
becomes
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Science
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Jasmina
Sangani
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'propaganda' or 'brain washing'
Types of Communication
 Information
 The primary function of health communication is to provide
scientific knowledge or information to people about health
problems and how to maintain and promote health.
 Information should be easily available to the people .
Exposure to the right kind of health information can
 eliminate social and psychological barriers of ignorance,
prejudice and misconceptions people may have about
health matters
 Increase awareness of the people to the point that they are
able to perceive their health needs
 influence people to the extent that unfelt needs become
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felt needs, and felt needs become demands
Types of Communication
 Message
 It is the information which the communicator
transmits to his audience to receive,
understand, accept and act upon.
 It may be in the form of words, pictures or
signs.
 Health communication may fail if the message
is not adequate
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Home Science Facilitator Jasmina Sangani
Types of Communication
 Characteristics of a good message
 in line with the objectives
 meaningful
 based on felt needs
 clear and understandable
 specific and accurate
 timely and adequate
 fitting the audience
 interesting
 culturally and socially appropriate
 Transmitting the right message to the right people at
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the
right time is a crucial factor in successful
Home Science Facilitator Jasmina Sangani
communication
Elements of Communication
Element
Sender
Description
The person or device intending to transmit the
information
Message The information in the form of an idea, thought,
attitude, feeling, opinion, etc
Receiver The person willing to share the message with the
sender
Feedback The reactions and responses of receiver to the sender
after receiving the message
Noise
The barriers to the message resulting in the distortion
or blackout of communication
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Sangani
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The Two-Way Process of
Communication
FEEDBACK
SENDER
MESSAGE
RECEIVER
NOISE
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Home Science Facilitator Jasmina Sangani
Terminology
 Audio aid: The device which can be heard but the person
and objects whose voices are recorded cannot be seen.
e.g. audio-tapes, audio cassettes, record discs
 Visual aid: The teaching device which can be seen but
not heard. e.g. slides, film- strips, opaque projections,
photographs, pictures etc
 Audio- visual aid: The teaching device that can be both
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heard and seen. e.g. motion pictures, video cassette
players and television programmes
Home Science Facilitator Jasmina Sangani
Categories of Teaching Aids
Teaching Aid
Category
Examples
Graphic Aids
Charts, posters, pictures, cut-outs, placcards,
flash cards, bulletin boards, flannel boards,
magnetic boards, chalk boards
ThreeModels, specimen, real objects, apparatus,
dimensional Aids exhibits, dioramas
Activity Aids
Demonstrations, dramatization, projects,
excursions, field trips etc
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Sangani
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Sensory Learning Experiences
Sense
Organ
Eye
Sensory
Experience
Visual
Example
Ear
Aural
Listening to gramophone recording
Nose
Olifactory
Smelling a gas prepared in chemistry
laboratory
Tongue
Gustatory
Tasting a food item prepared in the
home science laboratory
Skin
Tactile
Showing the diagram of digestive
system
Feeling the shape, roughness etc. of an
object
Home Science Facilitator Jasmina
Sangani
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Category of Aids
Examples
Auditory Aids
Radio receivers; recordings
Visual Aids
Slides, film strips, over-head
projector, transparencies,
epidiascopic projections
Audio- Visual Aids
Motion pictures, television
programmes, video shows,
computer- video interface
Home Science Facilitator Jasmina
Sangani
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Kinds of Communication
Kind
Descriptions
Examples
Speaking- Listening
The sender speaks and the
receiver listens
1. Listening to a lecture or
discourse
2. Listening to a talk or a lesson
on a radio- set.
3. Listening to a tape or disc
Visualizing- Observing
The sender uses visual symbols
and the receiver observes
1. Use of an illustration or
diagram
Speaking- Listening,
Visualizing- Observing
The sender combines speaking
and visual symbols while the
receiver listens and observes
simultaneously
1. An educational television
programme
2. A video lesson
3. An educational movie
Writing- reading Kind
The sender uses written words
and symbols. While the receiver
reads or feels those
1. A handout on a given topic.
2. Silent reading from a text
book
Home Science Facilitator Jasmina 3. Braille system for the blind
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Sangani
Media Systems
 The total communication effort is based on three
media systems:
 Interpersonal communication
 Mass media
 Traditional or folk
media
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Science Facilitator Jasmina
Sangani
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Interpersonal Communication
 It is the most common channel.
 It is also called face-to-face communication
 It is more persuasive and effective than any
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other form of communication
 It is important in influencing the decisions of
the undecided persons
 The
superiority
of
interpersonal
communication over mass media for creation
of motivational effect has been well
documented.
Home Science Facilitator Jasmina Sangani
Mass Media
 Channels of mass media: TV, radio, printed media.
 It has the advantage of reaching a relatively larger
population in a shorter time as compared to other
means of communication.
 It is a one-way channel of communication
 It carries messages from the centre to the peripheri
 Feedback systems are poorly organized
 They are usually not effective in changing established
modes of behaviour.
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Home Science Facilitator Jasmina Sangani
Folk Media
 Network of traditional or folk media includes
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folk dances, singing, dramas, Nautanki in Uttar
Pradesh, Burrakatha in Andhra Pradesh and
Harikatha in Western India besides informal
group gatherings, caste or religious meetings.
 These are important channels of communication
close to the cultural values of the rural
population.
 They have been the principal instruments of
preserving the cultural heritage.
 Health messages may be communicated through
these
traditional
media.
Home Science Facilitator Jasmina Sangani
Feedback
 It is the flow of information from the audience to the
sender.
 It is the reaction of the audience to the message.
 If the message is not clear or otherwise not acceptable the
audience may reject it outright
 The feedback thus provides an opportunity to the sender to
modify the message and render it acceptable.
 In interpersonal communication the feedback is immediate.
 In mass communication it takes sometime to get feedback
 Feedback is generally obtained through opinion polls,
attitude surveys and interviews.
 It can rectify transmission errors.
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Home Science Facilitator Jasmina Sangani
Use of Audio- Visual Aids
 Suggestions for an effective and efficient use of
audio- visual aids:
 The school must have the audio-visual department for
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acquiring, co-ordinating and providing counseling
about the use of audio-visual aids.
 The advisory services of the departments in national
institutes connected with the audio-visual aids should
be sought.
 The liaison should be maintained with the state level
and national institutes connected for getting the audiovisual materials on loan for special use in the schools.
Home Science Facilitator Jasmina Sangani
Use of Audio- Visual Aids
 Suggestions for an effective and efficient use of
audio- visual aids:
 Teachers must update their knowledge about
teaching aids through professional associations and
journals
 Prepare your own improvised teaching aids and
catalogue for use.
 The training sessions should be held for effective
use of audio- visual aids
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Home Science Facilitator Jasmina Sangani
Use of Audio- Visual Aids
 Steps for developing and organizing an audio-visual
program for teachers:
 Integrate audio- visual aids with the
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curricular and co-
curricular activities of the school
 Correlate the audio- visual aids with the prescribed textual
material.
 Get the audio- visual lessons evaluated frequently to improve
the performance of a teacher
 Train the teachers for proper use and care of audio- visual
equipment
 Set up an audio- visual resource center for cataloguing the
teaching- aid materials
 Prepare
lesson-Jasmina
wise Sangani
instructional guides for use with the audioHome
Science Facilitator
visual aids.
Use of Audio- Visual Aids
 Criteria for Selection of Audio- Visual Aids
 Subject Relatedness- The audio- visual aids should be
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closely related to the lesson topics. These aids should
give the feeling of entertainment and amusement.
 Supplementary Role- The audio- visual aids must be
used to supplement the classroom teaching. The
audio- visual aids should be selected in such a way that
they assist the classroom instructor
 Accuracy- It should be observed that the audio- visual
aids should have accurate details as any incorrect
information conveyed by these aids can cause a lot of
Home Science Facilitator Jasmina Sangani
harm.
Use of Audio- Visual Aids
 Criteria for Selection of Audio- Visual Aids
 Accessibility- The audio- visual aids to be used for a
given lesson should be easily accessible and available
to a teacher.
 Variety- A large number of audio- visual aids should be
used for teaching a lesson because use of a single aid
produces monotony
 Cost Effectiveness- The audio- visual equipment
should be used frequently and for a large number of
students so that it becomes cost- effective.
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Home Science Facilitator Jasmina Sangani
Use of Audio- Visual Aids
 Criteria for Selection of Audio- Visual
Aids
 Pre- viewing- For selecting audio- visual
aids for classroom situation , they must be
pre viewed and appraised.
 Utility- Only those audio- visuals should
be selected which are useful and help
further education.
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Home Science Facilitator Jasmina Sangani
Flash Cards
 Small cards of generally 25cm x 30 cm size which are shown
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for a few moments before the class to send across a message
or impart an idea.
The idea on the flash card should be brief.
These cards are usually used for the drill in various subjects.
They may also be used for reviewing a lesson with the
students.
Flash cards can be used with other graphic aids to make the
lesson effective.
Home Science Facilitator Jasmina Sangani
Preparation of Flash Cards
 Cut a foolscap chart paper and cut it into four equal
parts.
 Write the content on it either in the free hand or using
lettering stencils and sketch pen.
 The height of the writing on the flash cards should be
approximately 5 cm so that the whole class can see the
flash cards clearly
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Home Science Facilitator Jasmina Sangani
Advantages of Flash Cards
 Can be used to introduce and present topics
 Can be used to apply information already gained by students
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to new situations
Can be used to review a topic
Can be used for drill and practice in elementary classes
Can be used to develop the cognitive abilities of recognition
and recall of students
A series of special purpose flash cards can be used for playing
educational games to couple learning with fun
Can be used as a supplementary aid and can be effectively
used with other materials
Home Science Facilitator Jasmina Sangani
Bulletin Boards
 The material on the bulletin board should change periodically
as new lesson topics are taught.
 The students can be asked to collect the display material to
be put on the bulletin board.
 During the course of the lesson, the teacher can make special
reference to the displayed material to make his lesson lively.
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Home Science Facilitator Jasmina Sangani
Using the Bulletin Boards Effectively
 Procure enough illustrative material from various
sources on a given subject or topic.
 Sort out the relevant material specific to the subject or
topic
 Display the material on the bulletin board in an aesthetic
manner keeping the color balance and harmony in view.
 On the top centre of the bulletin board fix a title for the
specific subject of the display material
 Below the title fix a brief description about the specific
subject or topic
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Home Science Facilitator Jasmina Sangani
Using the Bulletin Boards Effectively
 While teaching make reference to the material displayed
on the bulletin board.
 Keep the interest of the students alive by involving them
in collection of material for the bulletin board
 The height of the bulletin board should be one metre
above the ground.
 The area where the bulletin boards are fixed should be
well-lit.
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Home Science Facilitator Jasmina Sangani
Advantages of Bulletin Boards
 Work as a good supplement to normal classroom
teaching
 Arouses students’ interest in specific subjects
 Can be used effectively as a follow-up of chalkboard work
 Add color and liveliness to the classroom as they
have decorative as well as educational value
 Can be used to introduce a topic and review it.
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Home Science Facilitator Jasmina Sangani
Limitations of Bulletin Boards
 They can not be used for all inclusive
teaching.
 They can only be used as supplementary
aids to other teaching aids
 At times the collection of materials for a
certain topic may be difficult.
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Home Science Facilitator Jasmina Sangani
Flannel Board
 It is a display board made of wood, cardboard or straw board
covered with colored flannel or woolen cloth.
 Display material like the cut-outs, pictures, drawings and
light objects backed with rough surfaces like sand paper
strips, flannel strips etc. will stick to the flannel board
temporarily
 The sand paper backed material can be detached easily and
replaced with new relevant material as the lesson
progresses.
 A flannel board of 1.5 m x 1.5 m is most widely used. It can
be fixed next to the chalk board
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Home Science Facilitator Jasmina Sangani
Using a Flannel Board
 Collect pictures, light objects or make cut-outs
and back them with sand paper pieces.
 Display the material on the flannel board in a
sequence to develop the lesson
 Change the pictures or the cut-outs as you talk to
the students
 Create proper scenes and designs relevant to the
lesson.
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Home Science Facilitator Jasmina Sangani
Teaching situations & Flannel Boards
 For telling a story
 For letter recognition
 For recall testing
 For teaching elementary lessons on numbers
 For playing educative jig- saw puzzles
 For showing inter- relationship between different
parts of a process
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Home Science Facilitator Jasmina Sangani
Advantages of Flannel Boards
 Holds the interest of students and arrests their attention
 Continuity in lesson development due to sequential change
of material
 Quick and easy to use
 Enable teachers to talk along with the changing illustrations
to develop a lesson
 Kindles enthusiasm and interest of the teachers as well as
students
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Home Science Facilitator Jasmina Sangani
Chalkboards
 Preferred varieties of chalkboards
 Ground glass chalkboards
 Dull surfaced plastic chalkboards
 Vitreous coated iron chalkboards
 Recommended Size: 5m x 6m
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Home Science Facilitator Jasmina Sangani
Characteristics of a board
 The surface of the chalkboard should be rough enough to
write
 The surface of the chalkboard should be dull enough to
eliminate glare which hampers visibility of the writing on the
board
 The writing should be easily removable with a cloth or foam
duster
 The chalkboard should be mounted on an appropriate height
within the height of the teacher and visibility of the students
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Home Science Facilitator Jasmina Sangani
Dramatization
 Very potent method of keeping the classroom lively and
interesting
 When a teacher dramatizes a lesson, the students become
both the spectators and participants.
 This makes learning easy and permanent.
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Home Science Facilitator Jasmina Sangani
Types of Dramatization
Type
Description
Example
Role Playing
The players act out the characters based upon
their own knowledge and impressions of a
small incident. A role playing act requires no
script and rehearsal.
Acting out a family scene in which
dowry is being demanded from the
bride
Playlets
The players stage a small play lasting for 10-15 The story of Snow White and Seven
minutes with script preparation and costumes Dwarfs staged by primary students
Pageant
The players present a colorful enactment of a
phase of history with the period costumes
Pantomime
The players present a scene in which
A street scene in which objects and
characters act out loudly with expressions and some characters are shown by
gestures but do not speak
gestures
Tableaux
The players neither talk nor they act, but they
only pose different actions.
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Home Science Facilitator Jasmina Sangani
The story of Indian freedom
struggle being staged.
A factory scene with workers’
action posed with commentary
from the background and spotlight
shifting from one pose to another
Pictorial Graph
 Contains of pictures of the same type but different sizes,
proportionate to the magnitudes of the attributes being
represented.
 It can also be made with the pictures of the same size but
different in number to represent different magnitudes.
 It has a popular appeal to the viewer
 Could be used for younger children too to develop the
concepts of more, equal, less and similar comparisons
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Home Science Facilitator Jasmina Sangani
The Bar Graph
 A graph is an illustration comparing or showing changes in a
fact or set of facts.
 A bar graph is a very commonly used graph
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Home Science Facilitator Jasmina Sangani
The Pie Graph
 A pie graph is a circle or pie that represents one whole unit
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Home Science Facilitator Jasmina Sangani
Points to be borne in mind while
preparing a Pie Graph
 Find out the angles from the percentages or
fractions.
 Draw the circle on a chart paper using a big
compass using a sketch pen or marker pen
 Divide the circle into appropriate sectors using
the protractor
 Color each section and write the corresponding
percentage it represents
 Caption the pie chart with a descriptive title
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Home Science Facilitator Jasmina Sangani
Posters
 Posters are the graphic aids with short, quick and typical
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messages with attention capturing paintings.
 They can be of different sizes
 A big poster on a wooden or iron board is called a bill
board or hoarding
 Bill boards are usually used for advertising or
propaganda
 They are displayed in the market places, by rail and road
sides to convey messages and ideas in one shooting
glance
Home
Science Facilitator Jasmina Sangani
Uses of Posters
 It could be used for any one of these:
 Advertising an event or product
 Campaigning for a cause
 Giving a directive
 Popularizing a slogan
 Drawing attention towards desirable actions and
values
 Giving a warning
 Popularizing a symbol or a sign
 Propaganda
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Home Science Facilitator Jasmina Sangani
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Home Science Facilitator Jasmina Sangani
Types of Models for Classroom Instruction
Type of Model
Description
Examples
Solid Models
A solid model is the replica of an original Globe; clay model of human and
thing made with some suitable material like animal ; a vegetable; dolls, toys
clay, plaster of paris, wood, iron etc. to show etc
the external parts and features of the thing
Cut-away and X- Ray
Models
Cut- away and X- Ray models are the Cross- sectional model of human
replicas of the original things to show body; Petrol engine; automatic
internal parts of a thing; it may either be in traffic control system
the form of a cross- sectional model showing
internal parts of a thing or may be composed
of detachable parts. Cross- sectional models
are difficult to make in the institutions as
they require expertise to construct them
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Home Science Facilitator Jasmina Sangani
Types of Models for Classroom Instruction
Type of Model
Description
Examples
Working Models
These models are either actual working A motor, a generator, a cycle
things or their miniature replicas. For pump etc
illustrating an operation , working models
are of great educational value
Sand Models
These are graphic lay-out using sand, clay, A tribal village, a city area,
saw-dust and other objects to show trees, marketing complex, a forest area
buildings, rivers, etc. Sand models are
made by using colored sand in a tray of
convenient size or on a table. Generally a
green field is shown by covering area with
green saw dust, water with blue cellophane,
cardboard cut-outs for showing forests.
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Home Science Facilitator Jasmina Sangani
Demonstration
 It is the method of doing and showing or undertaking an
activity to logically prove some principal or phenomenon.
 It is widely used in the science laboratory
 It helps to give proof and show clearly or point out certain
facts underlying the topic being taught
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Home Science Facilitator Jasmina Sangani
Do’s of Demonstration
 Keep everything ready and well- organized before the
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demonstration.
Place the pieces of equipment for demonstration high enough
for everybody to observe
Present the information sequentially stressing the main ideas
Let the demonstrator proceed smoothly without
interruptions.
Do not drag the demonstration unnecessarily as student are
likely to loose interest then
Ask questions to the students regarding their observations
Home Science Facilitator Jasmina Sangani
Do’s of Demonstration
 If students have not understood certain ideas during the
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demonstration , repeat the concept
Use other teaching aids to supplement your demonstration
Check continually that your demonstration is going on the
right track and students are getting the intended ideas.
Summarize the main points after the demonstration
Have a friendly and warm behavior during the demonstration
Allow students to perform after the demonstration is over
Give a handout or written material on the demonstration
along with key concepts
Home Science Facilitator Jasmina Sangani
Advantages of Demonstration
 Good for acquiring and perfecting
operational skills
 Engages students’ attention and operation
 Encourages students’ participation in
learning through questions and answers as
the teacher performs
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Home Science Facilitator Jasmina Sangani
How to make a demonstration
effective?
 Pre- Planning
 Rehearsal
 Performance
 Follow- up
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Home Science Facilitator Jasmina Sangani
Puppetry- Different types of a Puppet
Type
Description
String puppets
Or marionettes
Marionettes consist of puppets with hinged body parts which are
controlled by nine strings running through screw eyes in the hands of a
performer.
Pulling of these strings produces required movements in the puppet.
These puppets are mainly manipulated by professional puppeteers
Stick puppets
These are painted cardboard cut-outs attached by sticks. The actions of
these puppets are manipulated by the teacher and students by hiding behind
a screen so that only puppets are visible to the audience
Shadow puppets
These are silhouettes (dark shape of someone) of cardboard which produce
shadows on a white screen. The motion of these silhouettes is manipulated
by the teacher and the students
Finger or hand puppets
Hand puppets are round balls painted as heads with overflowing colorful
costumes. These are worn on fingers which operate their movements from
below the stage
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Home Science Facilitator Jasmina Sangani
Advantages of Puppetry
 It has all the advantages of dramatization
 It provides amusement and entertainment
 It can heighten human emotions and capture rapt attention
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Home Science Facilitator Jasmina Sangani
Types of Radio Programmes
Kind of Programme
Description
Talk
A talk is the sequential narration about a topic by a single speaker. A
good radio talk is characterized by naturaleness of voice; pleasant tone
punctuated by humorous incidents, human interest stories and word
pictures
Discussion
In a discussion a group of participants air their views in the from of
panels, interviews and debates. A number of voices make a discussion
interesting but much depends on the moderator who sets the tone of the
discussion. The end of discussion is followed by a summary to review the
major inputs which emerge out of the discussion or debate
Dramatization
These radio lessons have various interesting sound effects to amplify
emotions and give the mental pictures of the characters in a pot. Lessons
on stories or dance dramas would make use of special sound effects.
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Home Science Facilitator Jasmina Sangani
The teaching procedure of a radio
lesson
 Procure and study in advance the nature and content of the
radio lesson
 Prepare students for the radio lesson by informing them about
the background of the lesson
 Allow the students to listen to the radio lesson and you as a
teacher note down the important points covered by it.
 Make use of the noted down points to discuss the radio lesson
with the students
 Clarify and amplify the main points of the radio lesson using
other visual aids
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Home Science Facilitator Jasmina Sangani
Micro-Projector
 These are slide projectors designed to project
the micro-film slides or microscopic slides
to a group of students simultaneously.
 It reduces the cost of instruction as it eliminates the expensive
individual microscopies for each student.
 Enlargement on the screen is quite large for the students to
see and get more details
 Accompanied with the teacher's commentary, microprojection can assure the instructor that the students are
understanding what is being taught to them which is
otherwise not possible with viewing slides individually
Home Science
Facilitator Jasmina Sangani
microscopes
69 through
Overhead Projection
 It is a vital teaching aid.
 It has made projections so simple and easy that it has
replaced chalk- board completely in many classrooms.
 It produces images on a screen behind and over the head
of the teacher
 It can be used in soft light conditions and enables the
students to take down notes while viewing the
projections on the screen
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Home Science Facilitator Jasmina Sangani
Advantages of Motion Picture as
Teaching Aid
 It captures attention, arouses interest and imparts emotional
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experiences.
 It can bring far-away experiences, events and actions filmed
earlier to the classroom and motion part of the film heightens
reality
 By slow motion filming and projection, the stages in a process,
acting or event can be viewed in details
 Many slow processes can be shown as fast by filming them at the
right stages of development to educate students quickly
 It allows events which are out of reach or specific to be seen
without getting near those events
 It can enlarge or reduce things and show the internal parts,
Home
Science Facilitator
Jasmina Sangani
processes
and working
of things
Different Types of Screen
Type
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Description
Advantage
Silver Screen
An aluminium powder coated cloth
screen is called silver screen
It reflects light well and gives
an illusion of depth to the
image
Matte Screen
A simple white cloth screen with smooth
surface is called matte screen
It is cheap and suitable to
wide rooms
Beaded Screen
A white cloth screen coated with glass
beads is called beaded screen
It reflects light well and is
useful for narrow long
rooms
Translucent
Screen
A thin white silken cloth or tracing cloth
screen is called translucent screen
It gives distinct images on
both sides of screen suitable
for exhibitions where
projection is done from
behind without the audience
seeing the projector
Home Science Facilitator Jasmina Sangani
Advantages of Educational
Television Programme
 Television appeals to the eye, ear and emotions. Thus
due to total involvement, it can induce effective learning
 It can relive with vividness the past events and
happenings
 It can directly show the current happenings and even live
shows taking place in remote areas
 A television set is a compact piece of equipment which is
easy and convenient to handle
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Home Science Facilitator Jasmina Sangani
Effective Use of Television for
teaching
 Motivate students to watch the program critically and for
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specific details.
During the program draw attention of students to certain
important aspects with short phrases
After the programme, a follow-up session should be carried
out and other instructional aids used to reinforce the learning
The follow up should be extended to certain related activities
like panel discussion or question- answer session
Test the students on their learning gains after the programme
and its application
Home Science Facilitator Jasmina Sangani
Computer Aided Instruction (CAI)
 When the computer is used as an aid to teaching , method of
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instruction is called Computer Aided Instruction (CAI)
 In implementing the CAI, the principles of programmed
learning are used with an added advantage that the responses
of the students are instantly and permanently recorded by the
computer.
 For CAI the information is broken into small pieces and fed
to the memory of the computer.
 The students interacts with the computer for learning,
testing, immediate feedback and reinforcement
 The instructional spectrum ranges from simple drills to
problem
solving
Home
Science Facilitator
Jasmina Sangani
Classification of Field Trips
Type
Description
Local School Trip It is a trip within the school and its
immediate neighbour to acquaint
students about the potential of learning
from the immediate environment. It is
essential for new students to obtain all
the information about the school
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Specific Example
A trip to the school library
to know all the details about
using the library
A trip to the first aid room
to acquaint the students with
the services available
Community Trip
It is a trip made to a nearby place of
A trip to the local zoo, local
educational interest and it requires some park, garden, local museum,
hours or a complete day
local factory, historical
place, poultry farm, nature
hunt trip,, bank, railway
station, post office
Educational Trip
It is the trip made to a distant place
requiring more than one day
Home Science Facilitator Jasmina Sangani
A trip to a far off historical
place, dam, a few important
towns enroute a journey
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