Where are they?

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In this unit you will learn how to:
 give reasons why something
happened.
 express wishes, complaints,
giving orders, and
suggestions.
 write an explanation text.
Stage 1.Giving reasons why something happened
Getting Started
A. LET’S TALK • Look at the pictures.
Then answer the questions
Some students complete their classroom
assignments on a personal computer. By
making the lesson a game or enhancing it
with sounds, graphics, and animation,
computers make learning more enjoyable
and increase retention.
What do you think?
1. Do you know
computer?
how
to
operate
a
2. How long have you studied with a
computer?
3. What can computers do to help your
work?
4. Do you know how a computer carries out
instructions?
5. Do you agree with the above statement
that says: “…. Computers make learning
more enjoyable and increase retention”?
Why/ why not?
B. ACTIVE LISTENING •
Read and listen
to a text about a pipeline and pay
attention to the intonation. Circle the
right action verbs used in the text.
Then, fill in the table.
Have you ever heard about a pipeline
in computer technology? Guess what.
Right. A pipeline is very close
to
a
computer. But can you tell
me what a
pipeline is? Well, let me explain. A
pipeline in a computer is a sequence of
stages a computer (1.uses, chooses,
processes) to carry out instructions.
The CPU makes sure every stage in a
pipeline is always (2. doing, working,
operating) on an instruction. As a stage of
pipeline in the CPU (3. finishes,
separates, deletes) manipulating an
instruction, it (4. keeps, hands, works) its
instruction to the next stage and gets
another instruction from the stage before
it, (5. running, moving, stopping) several
instructions
along
the
pipeline
simultaneously. This process is more
efficient than it would be if it instruction
had to start at the first stage after the
previous instruction finished the final
stage.
Oh, I almost forgot, the more pipelines
a CPU has, the faster it can (6. execute,
cut, link) instructions. A CPU with two or
more pipelines is said to be super
pipelined or superscalar. Okay. Have you
got it? Not yet. How about (7. going,
visiting, playing) to the library and (8.
searching, discovering, finding) more
explanations about a pipeline? See you
and good luck.
(Adapted from: Microsoft Encarta Reference Library,2005)
Find out
Gambits used for
presentation
1. Asking for
information
2. Guessing
3. Right or wrong
4. What you really
mean
5. Checking
6. Adding things
7. Offering a
suggestion
8. Leave-taking
What are they?
Write here.
1. Can you tell me
what a pipeline is?
2. ______________
3. ______________
4. ______________
______________
5. ______________
6. ______________
7. ______________
______________
8. ______________
C. Your turn •
Work in group of three.
Develop the dialog below based on the
situation given.
Situation: Rangga and his friend, Cinta are
looking for information about a pipeline in
their school library when their computer
teacher, Mr. Ari greats them.
D. TRY THIS • Work in pairs. Check the
meaning of the following words in your
dictionary.
1.By the way : ______________________
2.Looking for : ______________________
3.I still don’t get it :__________________
4.If you don’t mind :__________________
5.No problem : ______________________
Get It Right
A. THINK ABOUT IT •
Look at the
following picture. Then, answer the
questions.
1.Where are they?
2.Who are they?
3.What are they talking about?
4.Why did the man with glasses ask Tom to
stop singing?
5.What was Tom’s response? What did he
say?
WAYS TO SAY IT
Expressing Wishes
Giving general
wishes:
• I wish you luck
• Good luck
• Best of luck
Responding to general
wishes:
• Thank you
• Thank you very
much
• Good fortune be
with you.
• Many thanks
• I hope that
everything goes
OK for you.
• Thank you and
the same to you.
• Thanks. You too.
• Thank you and
Happy New Year
to you too.
Giving general
wishes:
• I’m sure that
everything will
work out just fine.
• May you be happy
and successful in
your new life.
• Well, we hope
that everything
will be alright.
• I hope you have a
good/ pleasant/
enjoyable …
• Please give your
parents my best
wishes.
B. TRY THIS • Listen to the following
dialogue. While listening, fill in the
blanks. Pay attention to the intonation
used in the dialogues. Then, answer
the questions.
Dialogue 1
Andy
: Hi, Windy.
Windy : Hi.
(1)
________________?
Andy : I’m going to ask Mr. Indra for a
remedial test.
Windy : You’re finally going to do it, huh?
Good fortune be with you. (2) ___________
Andy
: So do I
Dialogue 2
Teacher : So, John, have you decided what
(3) ____________________
are you going to
this morning?
Student : Yes, sir. I got an article about
‘pipeline’.
Teacher : You did? Well, congratulation. I
think you’ll do very (4) __________________
because you like studying computer very
much. Beat of luck.
Student : (5) ______________, sir.
Find out
Dialogue 1
1.What are they talking about?
2.Who are they?
3.What expressions are used in the dialogue
to wish good fortune?
Dialogue 2
4.What are they talking about?
5.Who are they?
6.Why do they wish good fortune for their
friends?
C. YOUR TURN * Work in pairs. Discuss
the following situations with your
partner. Choose one of these situations
and develop it into an interactive
dialogue. Use gambits expressing
wishes. Then, perform the dialogue.
1.One of your friends is going to have a
final examination. You meet him/ her on
the street.
2.Two people are talking in an office. One
of them has to go to a different city for
along period of time. This is the last time
you will see each other.
3.You are talking with an acquaintance at a
party. She tells you that she’s going to
study abroad.
D. ENJOY THIS. * Give your best wishes
when:
1.Someone is joining a competition.
2.Someone is applying for a scholarship.
3.Someone is celebrating a special event.
4.Someone is moving to another town.
5.Someone is moving to another school.
WAYS TO SAY IT
Complaining and giving an order
Expressing complaint: Giving an order :
• I want to
• Give me that!
complaint about
• Be quiet!
this shoes.
• Don’t sit there!
• Well, this is the
most
• Do it right now,
unsatisfactory
will you?
service I’ve ever
• Stop it. I tell you!
found. I booked
the room myself a • Will you hurry up!
week ago.
• I order you to get
• I’m afraid … it’s
out!
just not good
enough.
Expressing complaint:
• What can you do
about these
rooms?
• Something must
be done.
• I’m sorry to say
this, but this room
is very dirty.
• I’m afraid I’ve got
a complaint about
…
• Would you mind
not talking too
loudly?
Giving an order :
• Will you please
stop talking!
• Would you please
sit down!
• Do you mind not
singing!
• You must wait
here!
E. YOUR TURN * If you were in the
following situation, what would you
say?
1.Your friend has spent nearly three hours
trying to choose a present for his mother.
As a result both of you missed your bus
home. What would you say?
2.It’s 2 o’clock in the morning and you are
trying to sleep. Twice you have
telephoned your neighbor to complain
about the noise of a party being held
there, but the noise is still just as bad.
You telephone again, but get very little
cooperation. What would you say?
3. A bus conductor didn’t give your money
back. What would you say?
4. You are concentrating in a library. Your
close friend, who is sitting next to you,
is talking loudly on a phone. What
would you say?
F. ENJOY
THIS * Read the following
dialogue and answer the questions.
Then, practice the dialogue with your
friends in front of the class.
Situation: Two students are having a talk with
their teacher.
Teacher
:Good morning students. Well,
we are now going to have a
presentation about the respiration
system. Hey, you two. Be quiet!
1st student:I am sorry, sir. But may I ask you
something before the
presentation?
Teacher
: Of course. What’s the matter?
2nd student :You see, we are planning to use
OHP instead of ‘Power Point’
because we have some
difficulties in scanning some
pictures.
Teacher
: It’s okay. But don’t forget, you
have to prepare the OHP yourself.
1st student: Yes, sir. Thank you.
Find out:
1.Where are they?
2.What are they doing?
3.What are they talking about?
4.What does the teacher ask the
students to do?
5.Underline expression of giving an
order.
WAYS TO SAY IT
Giving suggestions
Asking for
suggestions:
• Should I try to talk
• Do you think I
with him about
ought to call the
this matter again?
police?
• If you were me,
• What do you think
what would you
I should buy him
tell her?
for his birthday?
• If you were in my
• Do you have any
situation,
would
ideas about how I
you forgive him?
can sell my car?
• What
do
you
advice I pack for
the trip?
Offering suggestions :
•
How
about
taking
• I
think
you’d
a bus instead of
better
start
driving?
looking for a new
job.
• Try ignoring her
for awhile.
• If I were you, I’d
stop writing her.
• I’d say that you’d
better quit the
• It would probably
team now.
be a good idea to
send
this
Express mail.
by • I advice you to
talk with your
lawyer.
• Why don’t you try
calling
her
tonight?
G.
TRY THIS * Listen to the following dialogues. While
listening, fill in the blanks. Then, answer the questions.
Dialogue 1
Mike
: Do you think we should look at these brochures?
Susan
: That’s good Idea.
Mike
: How about ‘Lombok’ instead of ‘Bali’. It looks more
interesting.
Susan
:
Mike
: You’re right. We don’t have enough time to look for
it. Well, (2) ___________.
Susan
: How about, Padang? Let’s try that.
Mike
: Alright. What pictures do you think we should
insert in our presentation?
Susan
: Let’s take some photos of a few well-known places
there.
_________ but we lack information about
‘Lombok’.
(1)
Mike
:
_________. I hope our presentation will be more
interesting by inserting them.
Susan
: O.K. Let’s get to work.
(3)
Dialogue 2
Tina
: Noboru, I’m so happy knowing that you at last
successfully asked Laura out for dinner. It’s about
time.
Noboru
: Well, to be honest, I was a bit nervous, but
surprisingly she accepted right away.
Tina
: Where are you taking her?
Noboru
: Maybe the Manor.
Tina
: Wow! That place is expensive, Noboru!
Noboru
: I know, but Laura’s very special.
Tina
: Oh, Okay. Don’t forget to talk to Laura during
dinner. If you just sit there like a sphinx, she’ll feel
uncomfortable.
(4) _____________,
Tina?
Noboru
: Cool it Tina. We’ve been through your lessons on
manners a hundred times! Where should I take her
after dinner?
Tina
:
_________ go to the Paradise Club. It’s the most
romantic place around here. Just perfect for the
two of you.
(5)
Find out:
1. Who are the speakers in dialogue 1 and 2?
2. What are they talking about?
3. Who asks for a suggestion?
4. Who offers a recommendation?
5. Underline the expressions of asking for or
offering suggestions in the previous
dialogues.
H.
ENJOY THIS * Work in pairs. Complete the following
dialogue with expressions of suggestion. Then, perform it
in front of the class.
Situation: A student is talking with her English teacher.
Student
: Miss Wati, what do you advise me to do about my
English lesson? Should I take a private course?
Teacher
: _________________________________________
Student
: What if my mother says _____________________
Teacher
: Then follow _______________________________
Student
: But I _____________________________________
Teacher
: That’s why ________________________________
Student
: O.K. Thanks for your advice.
Teacher
: You’re welcome.
Moving Forward
A. THINK ABOUT IT • Check the meaning of the
following words in your dictionary.
1. Used
: ____________
10. sculpture : ________ ____
2. Coated
: ____________
11. solidified
: ____________
3. Encased : ____________
12. layer
: ____________
4. Melted
13. mold
: ____________
5. Removed : ____________
14. plaster
: ____________
6. Poured
: ____________
15. clay
: ____________
7. Broken
: ____________
16. ancient
: ____________
8. Wax
: ____________
17. utilitarian : ____________
9. Casting
: ____________
18. dentures
: ____________
: ____________
B. FIRST CHALLENGE • Read and listen carefully
to the following explanation. While listening, fill
in the blanks. Then, answer the questions.
A
general
statement
Good morning students. Hmm, have you ever
heard about ‘Cire Perdue’ or ‘Lost Wax’? Well, (1)
_________ me explain. ‘Cire Perdue’ which is
the French word for ‘Lost Wax’ is a process of
wax casting used in making metal sculptures.
A
sequenc
ed
explana
tion of
why or
how
somethi
ng
occurs
Closing
When
a model id coated with wax, the
solidified wax is encased in a two-layer mold of
plaster or clay. It is (2) _____ melted or
otherwise removed from the mold, and metal is
poured into the space where the wax had been.
Oh, I almost forgot, after cooling, the mold is
(3) __________ to free the metal object.
This ancient method is used to produce
sculptures, jewelry, and utilitarian (4) _________
such as dentures. Do you understand? Not yet?
Okay, how about going to the library to find
more information about ‘Lost Wax’? (5) _______
and good luck.
(Adapted from: www. Searchencarta. Com)
Find out:
1. What does the text tell you?
2. What is Lost Wax?
3. What are the tools you need in the Lost
Wax process?
4. How many stages are there in the Lost
Wax process?
5. Which of these is the purpose of the text?
a. To describe the way things are.
b. To explain the processes involved in the
formation of sociocultural phenomena.
6. Can you find expressions typically used in
conversation in the text? Mention them.
7. Circle all the action verbs used in the text.
8. Underline all the passive sentences used
in the text!
9. Are there any conjunctions used in the
text? Mention them!
10. Is the text written in the present tense?
Why?
C. SECOND CHALLENGE • Read and listen carefully
to the following explanation. While listening, fill
in the blanks. Then, answer the questions.
MAKING PAPER FROM WOODCHIPS
Do you have any paper in your bag? It may seem like
a silly question but do you know how to make (1)
__________? What is paper made of? Right. And
how about ‘wood chipping?’ Have you ever heard
about it? Well, wood chipping is a process used to
obtain pulp and paper products from (2) __________
trees.
First of all, the tops and branches of the trees are cut
out and then the logs are taken to the mill. At the (3)
_________ the bark of the logs is removed and the
logs are taken to a chipper which cuts them into
small pieces called woodchips. The (4) ________ are
then screened to remove dirt and other impurities.
Hmm, … at this stage they are either exported in this
form or changed into the pulp by chemicals and heat.
Oh, I almost forgot, the (5) ________ is then bleached
and the water content is removed. Finally, the pulp is
rolled out to make paper.
A
general
statement
A
sequenc
ed
explana
tion of
why or
how
somethi
ng
occurs
Considering the complexity is making paper,
let’s (6) _______ any paper on our hands. Use
it more effectively. Thank you for listening.
Bye.
Closing
Find out:
1. What are ‘wood chips’?
2. What is the first stage of wood chipping?
3. How many stages are there before the pulp is rolled to
make paper? What are they?
4. At the mill, the bark of the logs is removed and the logs
are taken to a chipper which cuts them. The word ‘them’
refers to ________.
5. Which of these is the purpose of the text?
a.
To describe the way things are.
b.
To explain the process involved in the formation of
sociocultural phenomena.
6. Can you find gambits in the text? Mention them.
7. How many action verbs are there used in the text? What
are they?
8. Are there any abstract words in the text? What are
they?
9. Underline all the passive sentences used in the text.
10.Are there any conjunctions used in the text? Mention
them!
?
Did you know
An abstract noun is a word for a concept. It is an idea that
exists in our minds only. We call them abstract nouns
because we can’t see, touch, and smell them. Those words
can’t be perceived by the senses.
See the examples given in the bold words.
• I think I like her beauty.
• I think I like this kindness.
• a very complex process.
E. FOURTH CHALLENGE • Work in group of four. Fill in
the blanks with appropriate words. Label the generic
structure. Then answer the questions.
hydrogen atoms
chemical energy
(1) __________ is a very complex (2) ___________,
and the for the sake of (3) ________ and easy of
understanding, plant biologist divided it into two (4)
________.
In the first stage, i.e. the light-dependent (5)
_________, the chloroplast traps (6) __________ and
converts it into (7) _________ contained in nicotinamide
adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) and adenosine
triphosphate (ATP), two molecules used (8) ___________
of photosynthesis.
In the second stage, called the light independent (9)
_______ (formerly called the dark reaction), NADPH
provides the (10) ________ that helps form glucose, and
ATP provides the energy for this and other reactions used
to (11) ________.
These two stages reflect the (12) _______ of the trm
photosynthesis, to build with (13) ________.
(Taken from: Article Online.com)
Find out:
1. Do you know the important parts of tree in which the
process of photosynthesis occurs?
2. Have you studied how the photosynthesis works?
Explain it as simple as possible.
3. Compare your answers with the other groups’ answer.
4. Discuss the differences. Ask your teacher for the best
answer.
Hand in Hand
A. FIRST PROJECT • Work in groups of four. Arrange
the following paragraphs into a good order: a general
statement, explanation, and closing. Then answer the
questions.
Human Respiratory System
……..
Do you know what helps your body get oxygen from the air?
Right. it’s the respiratory system. Can you tell me the most important
organs in the respiratory system? Yes, your nose, mouth, trachea, lungs,
and diaphragm.
……..
In the lungs, Breathing out or exhalation removes carbon
dioxide from the body, thus completing the respiration cycle. Do you
understand so far? (the bell rings) Well, sorry. I guess time is up for
today. So see you tomorrow. Bye
……..
The second phase of respiration begins with the movement of
carbon dioxide from the cells to the bloodstream. The bloodstream carries
carbon dioxide t o the heart, which pumps the carbon dioxide-laden blood
to the lungs.
……..
The first phase of begins with breathing in or inhalation. This
inhalation brings air fro out side the body into the lungs. Oxygen in the
air moves from the lung through blood vessels to the heart, which
pumps the oxygen-rich blood to all parts of the body. Oxygen then
moves from the blood stream into cells, which completes the first phase
of respiration. In the cells, oxygen is used in a separate energy
producing-process called cellular respiration., which produces carbon
dioxide as a byproduct.
……..
The respiratory system, in anatomy and physiology, are organs
that deliver oxygen to the circulatory system for transport to all the body
cells. The respiratory and circulatory systems work together to deliver
oxygen to cells and remove carbon dioxide in a two-phase process called
respiration.
Find out:
1. Why are these organs (nose, lungs, trachea, mouth, bronchial
tube, diaphragm) really essential for us?
2. Do you know what would happen if those organs are not
working properly?
3. How many phases are there in the respiration process?
4. The first phase of respiration occurs in ______________.
5. What happens in the first phase of respiration? Complete the
following sentences.
First,______________________________________________
__________________________________________________
Then,______________________________________________
__________________________________________________
Afterthat,___________________________________________
__________________________________________________
Finally,_____________________________________________
__________________________________________________
6. What happens in the second phase of respiration? Complete
the following.
First,______________________________________________
__________________________________________________
Then,______________________________________________
__________________________________________________
7. Which of these is the purpose of the text? Mention them.
a. To describe the way things are.
b. To explain the process involved in the formation or
working of natural phenomena.
8. Can you find any gambits in the text? Mention them.
9. How many sentences are there written in passive form? Write
them here.
__________________________________________________
__________________________________________________
__________________________________________________
__________________________________________________
__________________________________________________
__________________________________________________
__________________________________________________
__________________________________________________
__________________________________________________
__________________________________________________
__________________________________________________
10 Are there any conjunctions used in the text? Mention them!
B. SECOND PROJECT
•
Work in groups. Read the
previous text about the respiratory system again. Then,
develop the text into a meaningful dialogue and read it in
front of the class.
HINT
Consider the following steps you should do.
1. Think of the following:
a. Where does the dialogue take place?
b. When does it occur?
c. How many people are there in the dialogue?
How old are they?
2. Make a list of expressions you are going to use.
3. See the example.
Gambits
a. Asking for information
b.
c.
d.
e.
f.
g.
h.
Guessing
Right or wrong
What you really mean
Checking
Adding thing
Offering a suggestion
Leave-taking
Where are they? Write here
1. Can you tell me what respiration
is?
2. __________________________
3. __________________________
4. __________________________
5. __________________________
6. __________________________
7. __________________________
8. __________________________
Show It Off
YOUR MISSION • Make your own explanation text.
Follow the instructions below. Then, read
explanation text to a friend sitting next to you.
your
1. Based on the above pictures, think of the process you are
going to explain. List all important words you will be using to
make a general statement.
2. Write the expressions and functions you are going to use in
the opening of your text.
3. Write how the process occurs in a logical sequence. List all
the important words you will use in each phase.
4. Write the expressions you are going to use in each phase.
5. Think how to end your text nicely. List all the important words
and also the gambits you want to use.
6. Don’t forget:
● to include conjunctions to make coherence in your
paragraph.
● to vary the sentences in the present tense using
passive and active sentences.
● to use abstract words/ nouns.
● to elaborate your supporting sentences by giving data
examples, statistics, etc.
● to check gambits, spelling, capitalization, commas,
and pronoun references.
HINT
Consider the following steps you should do.
1. Gather your information using this mind mapping.
2. Use Peer-editing Checklist.
Find a partner and exchange your compositions. Follow these
steps:
a. Read your partner’s composition. Do not make any marks
on the paper. Just get the main points.
b. Read the paper again. This time underline words, phrases,
or expressions that don’t seem correct or are difficult to
understand.
c. Do you have any question about the contents of the
composition?
If so, write them on the comments sheet. Then write any
suggestions to the writer for improving his/ her
composition.
3. Write the final draft.
First, consider the points from your partner’s comments and
add them to your rough draft. Then, write the final draft of
your composition.
4. Read the text aloud to a friend sitting next to you. Pay
attention to your intonation.
Stage 1 Giving detail descriptions of why something happens
Getting Started
A. LET’S TALK • Look at the pictures. Then answer
the questions
What do you think?
Do you know how to operate a computer?
1. How long have you studied with a computer?
2. What can computers do to help your work?
3. Do you know how a computer carries out
instructions?
4. Do you agree with the above statement that says:
“…. Computers make learning more enjoyable and
increase retention”? Why/ why not?
B. ACTIVE READING • Read the text below. Arrange
the jumbled words in the in the brackets. Then, write
them in the box provided. Number one has been done for
you as an example.
Life Cycle of the Malaria Parasite
Malaria is (1. infectious-an-disease) caused by (2. parasiteone-celled-a) known as Plasmodium. The parasite is transmitted
to humans by (3. the-the-of-bite-Anopheles-mosquito-female).
(4. plasmodium-The-parasite) spends (5. cycle-life-its) partly in
humans and partly in mosquitoes.
(A) Mosquito infected with the malaria parasite bites
human, passing cells called sporozoites into (6. bloodstream-
human’s-the).
(B) Sporozoites travel to the liver. Each sporozoite
undergoes sexual reproduction, in which its nucleus splits to form
(7. new-two-cells), called
(C) Merozoites enter the bloodstream and infect (8. red-
cells-blood).
(D) In (9. cells-red-blood), merozoites grow and divide to
produce more merozoites, eventually causing the red blood cells
to repture. Some of the newly released merozoites go on to
infect other ( 10. red-cells-blood)).
(E) Some merozoites develop into (11. cells-sex) known as
male and female gametocytes.
(F) Another mosquito bites (12. human-the-infected),
ingesting the gametocytes.
(G) In (13. the-stomach-mosquito’s), the gametocytes
mature. Male and female gametocytes undergo sexual
reproduction, uniting to form a zygote.
The zygote multiplies to form sporozoites, which travel to
(14. salivary-glands- the-mosquito’s).
(H) If this mosquito bites another human, the cycle brgins
again.
1. an infectious disease
8. ______________________
2. ______________________
9. ______________________
3. ______________________
10. _____________________
4. ______________________
11. _____________________
5. ______________________
12. _____________________
6. ______________________
13. _____________________
7. ______________________
14. _____________________
C. YOUR TURN
•
Read the text about ‘Life Cycle of
Malaria Parasite’ again. Then, answer the following
questions.
1.
2.
3.
4.
How is plasmodium transmitted to humans?
The first phase of life cycle of th malaria parasite is ________
The life cycle of the malaria parasite begins again when ____
What will happen if merozoites enter the bloodstream?
Grammar in Action
A. Work in pairs to change the following clauses into
participle phrases. Number one has been done for you as
an example.
1. Malaria is an infectious disease which is caused by a onecelled parasite which is known as plasmodium.
Malaria is an infectious disease caused by a one-called
parasite known as plasmodium.
2. A mosquito which is infected with the malaria parasite bites a
human, then passes cells which are called sporozoites into the
human’s bloodstream.
3. Each sporozoite undergoes sexual reproduction, in which each
its nucleus splits to form two new cells, which are called
merozoites.
4. Sound recordings and reproduction are types of technologies
which are used to record, store, and play back sounds.
5. Inside a microphone is a thin, flat, metallic surface, which is
called a a diaphragm, that is suspended in a magnetic field.
B. Match the technical language with its examples. Do as the
following example.
Technical Language
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
pipeline
lost-wax
respiration
malaria
Woodchips
Sound recording and
reproduction
tsunami
Examples
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
f.
g.
Disease, mosquito, parasite
Metal, sculpture, wax, clay
Nose, mouth, lungs
Pulp, paper product, forest
trees
Playback, loudspeaker
stereo
Sea wave, ocean floor,
earthquake
Computer, instruction, CPU
C. Change the verb in the brackets into the correct form of
the passive (to be + Verb-3)
1. ‘Cire Perdue’ or lost wax is a process of wax casting which
_________ (use) in making metal sculpture.
2. A model _______ (coat) with wax. The solidified wax ______
(encase) in a two-layer mold of plaster or clay.
3. After cooling, the mold ______ (break) to free the metal
object.
4. This ancient method ______ (use) to produce sculpture,
jewelry, and utilitarian products such as dentures.
5. Wood chipping is a process which _______ (use) to obtain
pulp and paper products from forest trees.
6. The tops and branches of trees ______ (cut) down and then
the logs are ______ (take) to a mill.
7. At the mill the bark of the logs ______ (remove) and the logs
(take) to a chipper which cuts them into small peaces called
woodchips.
8. The wood chips ______ (screen) to remove dirt and other
impurities.
9. The pulp then ______ (bleached) and the water content
______(remove).
10.The electrons ______ (which pass) down a chain of carrier
molecules ______ (call) an electron transport chain.
D. Circle the best conjunction.
1. Photosynthesis begins (after, before, when) lights strikes
Photosystem I pigments and excites they electrons.
2. The energy passes rapidly from molecule to molecule (when,
while, until) it reaches a special chlorophyll molecule called
P700, so named (because, because of, if) it absorbs light in
he red region of the spectrum at wave lengths of 700
nanometers.
3. (until, when, while) this point, only energy has moved from
molecule to molecule.
4. (until, while, when) P700 transfers its electrons to the
electron acceptor, it becomes deficient in electrons.
5. (before, after, when) it can function again, it must be
replenished with new electrons.
?
Did you know
A complex sentence has two parts:
a. An independent clause
It is a complete thought and can stand as a sentence
by itself.
b. A dependent clause
It is not a complete thought. It needs to be attached to
an independent clause to get its meaning.
Look the following example:
a. A computer’s central processing unit (CPU), the part of
a computer that interprets and executes an instructions,
has one r more pipelines.
b. This process is more efficient than it would be if each
instruction had to start at the first stage after the
previous instruction finished the final stage.
F. Match an independent clause in column A
with a suitable dependent clause in column B
A
Independent Clause
1. Metal is poured into
the space
2. The mold is broken
to free the metal
object
3. The wood chipping
process begins
4. At the mill, the bark
of the logs is
removed and the
logs are taken to a
chipper
5. Do you know …
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
B
Dependent Clause
After it is cooling
When the trees are
cut down in a
selected area of the
forest
Who or what helps
your body? Take
oxygen from the air
Where the wax had
been
Which cuts them into
small pieces called
woodchips
A
B
Independent Clause
Dependent Clause
6. The bloodstream
f. Which produces
carries carbon
carbon dioxide as a
dioxide to the heart
byproduct
7. The respiration
g. That delivers oxygen
System, in anatomy
to the circulatory
and physiology are
system for transport
organs
to all body cells
8. In the cells, oxygen h. Which pumps the
is used in a separate
carbon dioxide-laden
energy-producing
blood into the lungs.
process called
respiration
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