The Expectations of School Governing Bodies with Respect

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Dr Lorinda Minnaar – EMASA Conference, Bellville, 2011
PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
To determine the expectations
that governing bodies of public
primary schools in middle-class
contexts hold of the work of
educators in the light of
prevailing education labour law.
RESEARCH QUESTIONS
1. What do members of governing bodies of public
primary schools situated in middle-class contexts
expect of educators with respect to educator
workloads?
2. To what extent are governing body expectations
of educators, in respect of their workloads,
aligned with or divergent from prevailing
education labour law?
LITERATURE REVIEW
1. International Literature:
Dinham & Scott – Rush to Reform Education
Naylor & Schaefer – BCTF Reports on Educator Workload
Naylor – Time-Use Study
Hargreaves – Work Intensification Thesis
2. South African Literature
Educator Workload in South Africa Study – HSRC&ELRC
Chisholm & Hoadley Report – IQMS&RNCS
3. Legislation
Constitution
South African Schools Act, 84 of 1996 (Section 20)
National Education Policy Act, 27 of 1996 (Seven Roles)
Employment of Educators Act, 76 of 1998 (Core Duties)
Basic Conditions of Employment Act, 75 of 1997
Labour Relations Act, 66 of 1995
RESEARCH DESIGN
PARADIGM
Qualitative
_____________________________________________________________________
STYLE
Interpretive
_____________________________________________________________________
SAMPLE
Public Primary Schools in Middle-Class
Contexts (Bellville, Durbanville, Paarl,
Stellenbosch and Somerset- West)
_____________________________________________________________________
PARTICIPANTS
SGB, Educators & Principals
_____________________________________________________________________
DATA
Open-Ended Questionnaires (SGB)
COLLECTION
Time-Use Diaries (Educators - 2 weeks)
INSTRUMENTS
Informal Conversations with Principals
_____________________________________________________________________
DATA ANALYSIS
Content and Document Analysis
FINDINGS THAT EMERGED FROM QUESTIONNAIRES
SGB EXPECTATIONS OF EDUCATORS IN TERMS OF CORE DUTIES
Teaching Responsibilities
• Plan and prepare lessons
thoroughly.
• Teach creative, lively lessons.
• Mark learners’ work promptly
and accurately.
• Provide meaningful feedback
and ensure remediation.
• Furnish parents with regular,
informative progress reports.
Classroom Management
• Create a positive teaching and
learning environment.
• Maintain consistent, fair
discipline.
Extra-Mural Activities
• Be fully involved in sport,
cultural, social and fundraising
activities and committees.
• Know learners in contexts other
than the classroom.
Pastoral Duties
• Guarantee learner safety.
Administrative Duties
• Follow up on absent learners.
• Assist learners to catch up on
work missed due to illness.
Professional Duties
• Keep abreast of developments
in education.
INTERPRETATION OF FINDINGS
QUESTIONNAIRES
SGB expectations of educators with respect to
the core duties are aligned with prevailing
education labour law because of its open-ended
nature. It is not clearly defined, specific and
explicit. It is characterised by silences and
omissions, which afford members of SGBs
legitimate opportunity to assign additional,
unspecified duties and responsibilities to
educators.
FINDINGS THAT EMERGED FROM EDUCATOR TIME-USE DIARIES,
SHOWING THE CORE DUTIES ON WHICH EDUCATORS SPENT THE
MOST TIME OVER TWO WEEKS
Highest: 50 hours
• Teaching lessons
Very High: 12 – 23 hours
• Maintaining discipline
• Creating a positive teaching
and learning environment
• Other extra-mural activities,
e.g. charity and community
work
• Marking learners’ work and
providing feedback
• Sport activities
High: 5 – 10 hours
• Planning and preparation of
lessons
• Other classroom management
duties, e.g. assisting student
teachers .
• Other administrative duties,
e.g. photocopying modules
• Attending courses and
meetings
• Keeping record of learners’
assessment and profiles
INTERPRETATION OF FINDINGS
EDUCATOR TIME-USE DIARIES
 Educators in middle-class public primary
schools are presently meeting, and in many
cases exceeding the expectations of not only the
SGB, but also the expectations prescribed in
prevailing education labour law.
 Educators often perform duties and carry out
responsibilities of which most people are
unaware.
IMPLICATIONS OF FINDINGS
• The SGBs of public primary schools in middle-class
contexts attach high value to education and hold high
expectations of educators in terms of their workload.
“Teaching is a calling” and “Walk the extra mile”.
• High expectations lead to an intensification in the
workloads of educators who teach at public primary
schools in middle-class contexts. “The pressure on
educators is a daily occurrence”.
• Prolonged intensification of educator workload could in
future proliferate high educator turnover due to stress
and burnout, which holds serious implications for middleclass schools in terms of the delivery of sustainable
quality education for learners.
CONCLUSION
To what extent will educators in
future be able to respond to even
greater parental expectations in
regard to educator workloads?
Will this trend continue or will policy
writers intervene?
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