Attention-Getter - Mona Shores Public Schools

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SPEECH PRE-PLANNING
 Before you begin writing any speech there
are numerous items to consider that will
help you to be more successful in the writing
and delivery of your speech.
SPEECH PRE-PLANNING
 No part should be skipped, overlooked, or
forgotten, as they are ALL important and
serve a specific purpose.
Pre-planning Steps
KNOW YOUR PURPOSE!
STICK to the purpose of the
speech!
I. Purpose of the Speech
A. GENERAL PURPOSE: Your broad goal for the speech.
The THREE GENERAL purposes are:
1. To Inform: to share information
2. To Persuade: to generate action, to influence behavior,
or beliefs
3. To Suit a Special Occasion: to suit the need of the occasion (graduation, eulogy,
wedding toast, etc.)
GENERAL PURPOSE
 Do NOT include persuasive wording in a
merely INFORMATIVE speech.
 Informative=neutral

Cannot tell which side speaker feels
I. Purposes for Speaking
B. SPECIFIC PURPOSE: A statement starting with
“to” that states precisely what a speaker hopes to
accomplish in his or her speech.
Usually the general purpose plus the
specific points of your topic.
To inform my audience about….
To persuade my audience to….
SPECIFIC PURPOSE
 Examples:
1. To inform my audience about the three
major types of staging for plays.
2. To demonstrate the steps in CPR.
3. To persuade my audience to vote for
proposal two.
4. To honor the bride and groom with a
wedding toast.
SPECIFIC PURPOSE
 Write specific purpose statement at top of
your outline (under the title) to keep yourself
on target.
Practice Activity
1. Choose a topic you know something about.
Topic:
2. Choose a general purpose
General purpose: To ________
3. Write a specific purpose statement
Specific purpose: To _____(GP + specific
speech points)
PARTS OF A SPEECH
I. Introduction
II. Body
III. Conclusion
SPEECH OUTLINES
 Type in MLA format
 Review MLA format


Handout
Practice
Speech Outlines & Class Notes
 Class notes and practice outline-Handout
 Held accountable for information
 May add additional notes from listening and
power point in the margins
Speech Titles
 Usually decided at end
 Title=

Centered

Should NOT be the type of speech


Informative Speech=NO!
SHOULD reflect content

be creative
I. INTRODUCTION
Write in COMPLETE SENTENCES
(The introduction, although the first part of the speech, is often written AFTER the body
of the speech)
A COMPLETE introduction contains the following:
 Attention Getter
 Thesis
 Audience Relevance
 Credibility
ALL must be labeled on your outline for points.
I. INTRODUCTION:
A. ATTENTION GETTER
Attention-Getter (first sentence of the speech)
ALWAYS THE FIRST WORDS OUT OF YOUR
MOUTH!
1. To get your audience’s attention-Hook them!
2. Purpose
a. Gain contact with the audience
b. Get attention
c. Arouse interest
The more interested your audience the more effectively they
will listen and the more likely your speech is to make an
impact.
I. INTRODUCTION
A. Attention Getter
3. Types of attention getters
a. Quotations (appropriate) Must be labeled on your
outline for points.
i. Cite (say) the speaker in the introduction
ii. Cite the source on the outline in parenthesis and
on the Works Cited (to be discussed later)
Use of a direct quote said by someone of importance or whose words are worthy, insightful
and relative to the topic.
QUOTE EXAMPLES
H. G. Wells once said, “The past is but the
beginning of a beginning.”
(thinkexist.com/quotes/h._g._wells)
In the words of JFK “Ask not what your
country can do for you, but what you can do
for your country.”
(www.brainyquote.com/)
I. INTRODUCTION
A. Attention Getter
b. Startling Statements/Statistics.
Must be labeled on your outline for points.
Uses a startling, shocking statistic or makes some bold statement to catch
people’s attention.
Cite the source on the outline in parenthesis and on the
Works Cited (to be discussed later)
EXAMPLE STARTLING
STATISTICS
More than 3,800 young drivers ages
15-20 are killed every year and
more than 326,000 young drivers
are injured every year.
(http://www.tdot.state.tn.us/wzsafety)
STARTLING STATISTICS
 When using a statistic-do the math and match
to the number in your audience.
 Example:
 10% of all teens ages 13-16 will get an STD
(cite source). That is # ____ of you sitting in
this room.
 Practice one of your own. Share.
I. INTRODUCTION
A. Attention Getter
c. Challenging question or series of
questions/Rhetorical Question
Must be labeled on your outline for points.
i. Questions not meant to be
answered
ii. Stimulate audience to think
about your topic.
SAMPLE: Challenging question or series of
questions/Rhetorical Question
How many of you….
What would you do if…
Why might you…..
 NOTE: Rhetorical Questions can be used in
combination with other techniques!
 NOTE: Do not overuse!
I. INTRODUCTION
A. Attention Getter
d. Humor (tell an appropriate joke or humorous
story) Must be labeled on your outline for points.
i. Must relate to the subject
ii. In good taste (appropriate to the classroom)
iii. Not offensive
iv. When in doubt-DON’T!
v. Make sure it is funny to
everyone!
I. INTRODUCTION
A. Attention Getter
e. Attention Capturing incident
Must be labeled on your outline for points.
i. Might be a personal experience
Uses a personal experience to introduce the topic, show that the speaker has an understanding
or reason to be concerned with the topic.
“This morning I saw......”
ii. STORIES-Anecdote or Narrative
ANECDOTE-A personal story, often humorous, that draws the audience in. It may even be an
experience they can relate to, therefore grabbing their interest.
NARRATIVE
A story relative to the topic that may not be a personal experience.
I. INTRODUCTION
A. Attention Getter
f. Visual/Audio Aid (picture, chart, music)
Must be labeled on your outline for points.
i. Related to subject
ii. Must be held up, displayed, or played to class
iii. Do not pass visual aids around
iv. Must be reinforced by first words: Explain connection
to topic.
I. INTRODUCTION
A. Attention Getter
g. Immediate issue or challenge/Reference to
a recent event
Must be labeled on your outline for points.
Something in the news related to your
topic.
EXAMPLE: Referring to a news story about global
warming or health care, etc.
Most of you probably heard the big news
yesterday about….(also good if you can combine
with a quote from the story/news).
I. INTRODUCTION
A. Attention Getter
h. Hypothetical Situation-You set up a fake
sample to get into your topic.
Must be labeled on your outline for points.
What if…..
Imagine….
ATTENTION GETTER PRACTICE
ACTIVITY
1. Choose one of the following topics.
Study Habits
Shoe Selection
Video Games
The Golden Rule
Road Rage
Money
Pet Care
Pollution
(It is likely, but not required, that you will have to narrow your general topic down
to some more specific element of the overall topic in order to create a truly
useful or interesting attention-getter.)
2. Select three types of attention-getting techniques and write out a potential
attention-getter for your practice topic using the correct format for each of the
three techniques you have selected. LABEL IT!
I. Introduction
B. CREDIBILITY
1. Must include SPEAKER CREDIBILITY
a. Expertise/knowledge
b. Trust
2. Must be labeled on your outline for points.
SPEAKER CREDIBILITY
Credibility is the amount of trust and belief the speaker inspires in the
audience. It is the level of knowledge or expertise the speaker has
related to the topic. The audience is not likely to listen to a speaker
whom they feel lacks credibility.
1. Why are you qualified to speak on the topic? How long have
you been interested in it or researching it?
2. Why should they listen to you? How has the topic
impacted or related to you?
I. Introduction
C. Audience Relevance
3. Have clear AUDIENCE RELEVANCE or
WIIFM (What’s In It For Me?)
a. Tell how the topic relates to or is important to
your audience.
b. Link your topic to the interests or concerns of
your audience. Why should they listen to you? How
does it concern/relate to them?
c. Must be labeled on your outline for points!
I. Introduction
D. Thesis Statement
D. Thesis sentence (usually the last sentence of the introduction)
1. Identifies topic and purpose of the entire speech (developed
from your specific purpose statement)
2. Name main points when 3 main points are required
a. arrange list in order to be covered in the
speech
b. Thesis should make a general statement about purpose
of the speech when you have more than three
main points.
Must be labeled on your outline for
points.
I. Introduction
D. Thesis Statement
Do NOT ever say:
“I am going to tell you…..”
INTRODUCTION ACTIVITY
 Class create one together.
 Choose Topic
 Choose General & specific purpose
 Choose type of attention-getter
 Write and label the introduction.
INTRODUCTION ACTIVITY
1. Choose one of the following topics:
assisted suicide
vegetarianism
animal testing
driving laws
recycling
illegal drugs
2. Write:
A.
Topic
B.
General purpose
C.
Specific purpose
D.
Thesis statement.
3. Write an introduction for this speech making sure that all parts of an introduction are
included. Label each part in parenthesis where it occurs in the introduction. When
labeling the attention-getter you must identify which kind it is. (Attention-getter,
Credibility, Audience Relevance, Thesis)
Organizational Possibilities
PRACTICE
 You are to take the following list and
organize the items in ways that make sense.
 Title/label each category.
 Organize in as many methods as make sense.
BODY OF THE SPEECH
ORGANIZING
TRANSITIONS
OUTLINING
ORGANIZING ACTIVITY
 DIRECTIONS: On the following slide you
will have a master list of household items.
 You are to create as many headings as you
can think of by which to group three or more
items.
ORGANIZING ACTIVITY:
SAMPLE







Dog
Cat
Tiger
Elephant
Hyena
Crow
Rat
Mouse
Fish
Shark
Ostrich
Snake
Whale
Rhino







Household pets
Two legs or fewer
African animals
Zoo animals
Scavengers
Aquatic creatures
Weigh more than 200
pounds
Items: List/Organize/Group
Logically-3+items per group










Blender
Typewriter
TV
Pillow
Toaster
Spoon
Laptop
Stapler
Blanket
Blinds










Ladle
Pen
Post-Its
Phone
Chair
Curtains
Couch
Bed
Strainer
Bowl
Recipe Card
Report
Table
Desk
Newspaper
Some Possibilities
 Rooms
 Size
 Characteristics



Appliances
Paper
Furniture
 Electric vs. non-electric
 Soft vs. hard
 Ease of portability vs.
difficulty
 Food vs. non-food
relationship
 Container vs. noncontainer
ORGANIZATION
D. Organizational Pattern(s)-all information
needs to flow and make sense in the order and
reason in which it is presented. There are a variety
of organizational patterns such as:
1. Chronological-time
2. Spatial- “space” or location
3. Topical-all parts equal
4. Problem-Solution
5. Cause-Effect
6. Order of importance (most to least OR least to most)
7. Compare/contrast
ORGANIZATION
For ALL research-based speeches
you will be given the organizational
template to use for MAIN POINTSbut you will still need to select the
best order to present all of your
SUPPORT for those main points.
ORGANIZATIONAL PRACTICE
Identifying Organizational Patterns
Many citizens are victimized every year by
incompetent lawyers.
A bill requiring lawyers to stand for
recertification every 10 years will do
much to help solve the problem.
Identifying Organizational
Patterns
Correction: Was correct
A. Many citizens are victimized every year by
incompetent lawyers.
B. A bill requiring lawyers to stand for
recertification every 10 years will do much to
help solve the problem.
Problem-Solution order
Identifying Organizational Patterns
The outermost section of the Egyptian burial tomb was the
entrance passage.
The next section of the Egyptian burial tomb was the
antechamber.
The innermost section of the Egyptian burial tomb was the
burial chamber.
The third section of the Egyptian burial tomb was the treasury.
Identifying Organizational
Patterns
The outermost section of the Egyptian burial tomb was the entrance passage.
The next section of the Egyptian burial tomb was the antechamber.
The innermost section of the Egyptian burial tomb was the burial chamber.
The third section of the Egyptian burial tomb was the treasury.
CORRECTION:
A. The outermost section of the Egyptian burial tomb was the entrance
passage.
B. The next section of the Egyptian burial tomb was the antechamber.
C. The third section of the Egyptian burial tomb was the treasury.
D. The innermost section of the Egyptian burial tomb was the burial
chamber.
*Spatial order
Identifying Organizational
Patterns
The effects of sickle-cell anemia include liver
damage, blindness, paralysis, and early
death.
Sickle-sell anemia is a hereditary blood disease
caused by abnormal blood cells.
Identifying Organizational
Patterns
The effects of sickle-cell anemia include liver damage, blindness, paralysis, and
early death.
Sickle-sell anemia is a hereditary blood disease caused by abnormal blood cells.
CORRECTION:
A. The effects of sickle-cell anemia include liver
damage, blindness, paralysis, and early death.
B. Sickle-sell anemia is a hereditary blood disease
caused by abnormal blood cells.
 Cause-effect
Identifying Organizational Patterns
As a social worker, Jane Addams founded the settlement house
movement in Chicago.
As a reformer, Jane Addams campaigned for child-labor laws,
unemployment compensation, and better public
sanitation.
As a suffragist, Jane Addams fought to give women the vote.
As a writer, Jane Addams is best known for her
autobiographical Twenty Years at Hull House.
Identifying Organizational Patterns
CORRECTION: Was correct-as would be any order if years not attached.
A. As a social worker, Jane Addams founded the
settlement house movement in Chicago.
B. As a reformer, Jane Addams campaigned for childlabor laws, unemployment compensation, and
better public sanitation.
C. As a suffragist, Jane Addams fought to give women
the vote.
D. As a writer, Jane Addams is best known for her
autobiographical Twenty Years at Hull House.
Topical
Identifying Organizational Patterns
The head was protected by a helmet.
The torso was protected by shoulder pieces, palates, a
breastplate, a skirt of tasses and a tuille.
The arms and hands were protected by brassards, elbow pieces,
and gauntlets.
The legs and feet were protected by cuisses, knee pieces,
jambeaux, and sollerets.
Identifying Organizational Patterns
CORRECTION: Correct
A. The head was protected by a helmet.
B. The torso was protected by shoulder pieces, palates, a
breastplate, a skirt of tasses and a tuille.
C. The arms and hands were protected by brassards, elbow
pieces, and gauntlets.
D. The legs and feet were protected by cuisses, knee pieces,
jambeaux, and sollerets.
Spatial or Order of Importance
Identifying Organizational Patterns
The problem can be solved by a combination of
business, government, and individual
action.
Disposable batteries have become one of
America’s most serious environmental
problems.
Identifying Organizational Patterns
CORRECTION:
The problem can be solved by a combination of business, government, and
individual action.
Disposable batteries have become one of America’s most serious environmental
problems.
A. Disposable batteries have become one of America’s
most serious environmental problems.
B. The problem can be solved by a combination of
business, government, and individual action.
Problem-solution
Organizational Pattern Activity
Group organizational activity using interactive
disc if time allows.
TRANSITION WORDS &
SENTENCES
 1. Purpose: Helps intro to flow and leads to
thesis statement
 2. Used whenever and wherever needed in
the speech-especially between main ideas
and between sub-points.
 3. Refer to your YELLOW HANDOUT.
II. BODY-OUTLINING
II. Body (second part of speech; Write the body
FIRST using only KEY WORDS or 3-5 word
PHRASES)
Use a TRANSITION WORD/PHRASE OR
SENTENCE (refer to yellow transitions handout) between points
Use proper outlining format-see handout
OUTLINING BASIC RULES
 ALWAYS 3 CAPITAL ROMAN
NUMERALS: I, II, III



I. Introduction
II. Body
III. Conclusion
OUTLINING BASIC RULES
 Your Body (II.) MUST have at LEAST 3
MAIN POINTS-Capital A. B. C.
 II. Body
A.
B.
C.
These match the three main points stated in your
thesis statement.
OUTLINING BASIC RULES
 Order is always number-letter-number-letter
 Capitals to lower case
 Roman numerals-to digits-to lower case
Roman numerals.

I. A. 1. a.i.
 You indent every time you get smaller
I.
A.
1.
a.
i.
 MINIMUM OF TWO PIECES OF
SUPPORT


If you have an a. you MUST have a b.
If you have a 1. you MUST have a 2.
II. Body
A. First main point in thesis statement
1. First sub-point (separate notes will be given on
Types of Support to research and how to cite properly.)
a. Detail
b. Detail
c. Detail
II. Body
(all details used from research MUST be
CITED or it is PLAGIARISM!)
B. Second main point in thesis statement
(Remember to use a transitional word or phrase
when moving to a new main point)
II. Body
C. Third main point in thesis statement
III. CONCLUSION
(Third part of every speech; Write last using
COMPLETE SENTENCES; remember to
use a solid transition)
III. Conclusion
A. First 2-4 sentences
1. Clinch the central idea
a. Restate the thesis statement (may use exact
wording or rephrase)
b. Summarize ideas presented
c. Make sure purpose of speech is clear.
i. To Inform (teach or demonstrate)
ii. To convince (sell or debate)
iii. To Suit a Special Occasion
III. Conclusion
2. Consider appropriate wording/tone to
get desired response
a. enthusiastic
b. angry
c. thoughtful
d. logical
e. other
III. Conclusion
3. Do NOT add new information in the
conclusion.
III. Conclusion
B. Last sentence: End smoothly with one clear
sentence; STRONG LAST WORDS HEARD!
1. “in other words” or moral of the story
2. Epigram (short saying that says a lot)
Examples:
It does not take much strength to do things, but it requires great strength to decide on what to do.
All suffering is caused by an obstacle in the path of a force. See that you are not your own obstacle.
(http://www.roycrofter.com)
III. CONCLUSION
3. Appropriate question
4. Illustration (with commentary) or
striking incident
a. Appeal or challenge
b. Picture of better things to come
III. Conclusion
5. PSYCHOLOGICAL FULL CIRCLE;
reverence back to your attention getter,
opening story, quote or scenario in a
concluding or tie-back manner.
The IMPORTANCE OF WORD
CHOICE
 Examples: talking to a friend vs. meeting
your date’s parents, vs. a job interview, vs.
playing with children, etc.
AUDIENCE ANALYSIS: WORD
CHOICE ACTIVITY
 Choose an abstract concept and explain it to
three different audiences adapting the
language/vocabulary, details, examples,
amount and complexity of information etc to
suit the audience.
 Example: define/explain honesty to: 1.
Employees at work, 2. Teenagers, 3. 6-year
olds
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