L.III.2 Demonstrate Internal Parallelism

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What is Parallel Structure?
1.4 Writers Craft: Parallel
Structure/Parallelism
• Parallelism refers to matching grammatical structures
in sentences. Elements in a sentence that have the
same function or express similar ideas should be
grammatically parallel, or grammatically matched.
• Parallelism is used effectively as a rhetorical device
throughout literature and in speeches, advertising
copy, and popular songs.
• Parallel structure is a syntax: a way of ordering
language.
3
Rhetoric
• the art of effective or persuasive speaking
or writing, especially the use of figures of
speech and other compositional
techniques
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How do I define it?
Parallel Structure: the repetition, or
pattern of phrases (or words) in the
same grammatical form.
What’s an example?
What are the repeating patterns?
(
the repeating
underline the repeating words)
;
“We must read aloud; we must listen.
We must roll vowels on our tongues, chew
on consonants; we must keep the beat with
arm and leg.”
~ Donald Hall
What is its purpose?
Parallel structure is an ordering of
language (a syntax) and has two main
persuasive (rhetorical) purposes:
•To demonstrate that two or more ideas have the
same importance. (Impacting the intellect).
•To please the reader/listener’s ear and eye with
repetition and balance. (Impacting the
emotions/senses).
Why do I need to know this?
• Good parallel structure improves the
clarity of your writing
• When you can create parallel structures in
your own sentences, you can bring power
and persuasiveness to your writing.
• When you can identify parallel structure in
others’ writing you can analyze the IMPACT
of specific kinds of writing on audiences
Importance of Parallelism
• When you write a thesis statement, often
you have to summarize three reasons in
parallel form.
• Example: Tobacco should be outlawed
because it endangers everyone’s health,
pollutes the environment, and drains us
of valuable energy.
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Parallelism in Writing
• To make your writing parallel, use the same
grammatical form for all items in a list
• Lists can be any of these things:
–
–
–
–
Parts of a sentence
Headings in a report
Items in a resume
Bulleted lists
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Parallelism in Lists
• Poor: I left my job for several reasons:
–
–
–
–
The pay was poor
Long hours
I found the work tedious
Equipment was dangerous
• Improved: I left my job for several reasons:
–
–
–
–
Poor pay
Long hours
Tedious work
Dangerous equipment
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Examples: Parallelism in Sentences
• Poor: Betty has intelligence, honesty, and she is funny.
• Improved: Betty has intelligence, honesty, and
she is funny humour.
• Poor: Good writing requires you to plan outlines, write
several drafts, and revision.
• Improved: Good writing requires you to plan outlines,
write several drafts, and revision revise your work.
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What is faulty parallelism?
• Define this in your spiral (see page 13)
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Examples of Parallelism
• Winston Churchill did not say
– I have nothing to offer but bleeding, toil, tears,
and sweating.
• He said
– “I have nothing to offer but blood, toil, tears
and sweat.” ~ Winston Churchill
• Churchill understood parallelism!
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More examples of Parallelism
• “Reading is to the mind what exercise is to the body”.—
Joseph Addison
• “Blessed is the man that walketh not in the counsel of
the ungodly, nor standeth in the way of sinners, nor
sinith in the seat of the scornful”.—The Book of Psalms
1:1
• “Ask not what your country can do for you; ask what you
can do for your country.”—John F. Kennedy
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How do I learn to identify
parallel structure?
Identify the parallel words, and parallel
prepositional phrases in the lines below:
"Friends, Romans, Countrymen, lend me your
ears; I come to bury Caesar, not to praise
him.”
—William Shakespeare, The Tragedy of Julius Caesar
How do I learn to identify
parallel structure?
Identify the parallel words, and parallel
prepositional phrases in the lines below:
"Friends, Romans, Countrymen, lend me
your ears; I come to bury Caesar, not to
praise him.”
—William Shakespeare, The Tragedy of Julius Caesar
How do I learn to identify
parallel structure?
• Turn to page 9 of your text. Examine
paragraph 3 (from Speak) for use of parallel
structure.
• Turn to page 12 in your text.
the example sentences in each
type of parallel structure (words, phrases,
clauses)
Practice: Parallel Struture from the
Gettysburg Address by Abraham Lincoln
• Listen to the audio of the Gettysburg
Address by Abraham Lincoln. How does
the voice of Abraham Lincoln capture
the readers attention?
• Identify and highlight the parts of the
sentences provided on page 12 that can be
described as parallel. What type are they?
(question 1 and 2)
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Identify parallel structure:
• Read the sentences from Abraham
Lincoln’s second inaugural address at the
bottom of page 12.
• Answer #3 on page 13. Share with a
partner to check your understanding.
• Review as a class
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John F. Kennedy Inaugural Address
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Anaphora
• See page 13
• Write down a definition of anaphora in
your spiral
• Listen for how MLK uses anaphora in his “I
Have a Dream” speech
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“I Have a Dream” Martin Luther King
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How do I learn to create parallel
structure?
Begin by writing out three sentences of your
own.
• Create one sentence on the word level of
parallel structure.
• Create one sentence on the phrase level of
parallel structure.
• Create one final sentence on the clause level of
parallel structure.
• Studying on the weekend takes persistence,
discipline, and commitment.
• My young pup Rondo Ray digs up our
garden, brings in buried treasure, and
deposits it at my feet.
• During the next several weeks of this pilot,
we will dedicate ourselves to the
experience of newness; we will respect
ourselves for the effort we expend; and we
will expect ourselves to master something
challenging.
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Check Your Understanding
(page 13)
• Take out a sheet of paper and head it
properly
• Read and identify the faulty parallel structure
in each example sentences (1-5).
• Rewrite the sentences with correct
parallelism on a separate sheet of paper.
• Share your answers with a partner when
done.
• Turn in to the in box
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