Discourse Markers

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英語授課解析與妙技分享
心得分享(二):Presentation Style
(部分內容編自UNSW之訓練教材)
侯建良 教授 (Adam Jiang-Liang Hou)
清華大學工業工程與工程管理學系
Email: [email protected]
URL: http://ekmlab.ie.nthu.edu.tw
Tel: 03-5742658
Fax: 03-5722685
中華民國100年11月4日
電子化知識管理實驗室 Http://ekmlab.ie.nthu.edu.tw
1
Related Lectures
• Discourse markers (3hrs)
• Grammar in context (3hrs)
• Impact technique (3hrs)
• Sound scripting/body language (3hrs)
電子化知識管理實驗室 Http://ekmlab.ie.nthu.edu.tw
2
Outline
• Discourse markers
– What are “discourse markers”
– Why “discourse markers”
– Typical examples
• Using visuals & approximate words
• Supportive skills
• Other lessons learned
電子化知識管理實驗室 Http://ekmlab.ie.nthu.edu.tw
3
Discourse Markers (1)
• Typical examples:
– “Well…”
– “You know…”
– “On the other hand…”
– “First of all…; secondly…”
– …
• Most of these discourse markers are formal and
used when speaking in a formal context or
when presenting complicated information.
• Discourse markers help to develop ideas and
relate them to one another.
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4
Discourse Markers (2)
• The subject for today is… (A)
• Now the title of the lecture is… (A)
• Now I use that phrase because… (C)
• Now I want to say two things… (D)
A. Topic change
B. Opposite opinion
• Firstly… (D)
• The second thing I wanna say about… (D)
• Now on the other side… (B)
C. Elaborate
• OK, now let’s turn to… (A)
• I want to now talk a bit about… (A)
• But we nevertheless, … (B)
D. Listing
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5
Why Discourse Markers?
• Greatly improve the argument and logic of a
presentation
• Help the reader understand the
structure of your argument
• Make the different parts of the
text 'stick together'
• Make your points clearer
電子化知識管理實驗室 Http://ekmlab.ie.nthu.edu.tw
6
Discourse Markers - Lecture Topic
• Today, we’re going to talk about…
• What I want to discuss today is…
• Today’s topic is…
• …
Discourse Markers - Lecture Plan
• There are a few things we’ll be covering today…
• We’ll start with…, and then look at…
• First of all…; secondly…
• …
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Discourse Markers - Repetition
• In other words…
• Which is to say, …
• What I mean is
• …
Discourse Markers - Contrast
• On the other hand, …
• In contrast, …
• While/Whereas X …, Y…
• …
電子化知識管理實驗室 Http://ekmlab.ie.nthu.edu.tw
8
Outline
• Discourse markers
• Using visuals & approximate words
– Types of visuals
– Why using visuals
– Highlight, comment on, and interpret visuals
– Approximate words
• Supportive skills
• Other lessons learned
電子化知識管理實驗室 Http://ekmlab.ie.nthu.edu.tw
9
Using Visuals (1)
• Graphs
• Charts
• Diagram
Images
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Using Visuals (2)
• A picture is worth a 1,000 words.
• You can focus attention and make
your point quicker, and in a way
that will be retained better, by
including pictures on your visuals.
• Highlight important information in a visual
• Comment on important information in a visual
• Interpret important information in a visual
電子化知識管理實驗室 Http://ekmlab.ie.nthu.edu.tw
11
Highlight Visuals
at, on, about, out, to
I’d like
us to look
at this part of the graph in more detail.
us to focus our attention
on one particularly important feature.
you to think
about the significance of this figure here.
to point
out one or two interesting details.
to draw your attention
to the upper half of the chart.
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12
Comments on Visuals
IF, As, Whatever, Whichever, However
As you can see, there are several surprising developments.
If you look at it more closely, you’ll notice a couple of apparent anomalies.
However you try to explain it, this is very bad news.
Whatever the reason for this, the underlying trend is obvious.
Whichever way you look at it, these are some of our best results ever.
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13
Interpret Visuals
lesson, message, significance, conclusions, implications
conclusions to be drawn from this are
lesson to be learned from this is
I’m sure the implications of this are
clear to all of us.
significance of this is
message here is
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Approximate Words (1)
• In Q4, we saw a 19.7% increase in revenue.
…saw almost a 20%increase…
• We’ve managed to bring down costs by 24.9%.
…by nearly 25%
• We currently have 97 branches in 205 countries.
…around 100 // over 200…
• We’ve made a substantial investment of $499.1m.
…of just short of $ ½ billion…
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15
Approximate Words (2)
• 76% of the respondents in our survey…
Just over ¾ of…
• The basic model comes in 56 different versions.
…more than 50…
• Turnover this year was $112,687,401.
…well in excess of $100m
• This project will be completed in 6-10 weeks.
…approximately 2 months
電子化知識管理實驗室 Http://ekmlab.ie.nthu.edu.tw
16
Outline
• Discourse markers
• Using visuals & approximate words
• Supportive skills
– Sound scripting
– Body language
– Survival language
• Other lessons learned
電子化知識管理實驗室 Http://ekmlab.ie.nthu.edu.tw
17
Sound Scripting (1)
• Sound scripting provides English learners with the tools to
understand word stress and intonation to deliver effective
presentations.
電子化知識管理實驗室 Http://ekmlab.ie.nthu.edu.tw
Sound Scripting (2)
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Body Language
• Body language is an important part of communication
which can constitute 50% or more of what we are
communicating.
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Survival Language (1)
• You make a mistake in your facts…
I am terribly sorry. What I meant to say was that…
• You’ve gone too fast and are losing your audience...
Let me recap what I’ve just said.
• You’ve missed out something important…
Sorry, I should have mentioned one thing.
• You’ve over-complicated what you have said and
you want to simplify it for your audience…
So basically what I am saying is this…
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21
Survival Language (2)
• What you have said didn’t make much sense…
Perhaps I didn’t make myself very clear…
• You cannot think of the right expression in English…
Sorry, what’s the word I’m looking for?
• Your words didn’t come out the way you intended…
Let me rephrase that…
• You are running out of time and you have to go fast…
Just to give the main points…
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22
Just learn these expressions by heart.
They will get you out of “sticky situations”.
電子化知識管理實驗室 Http://ekmlab.ie.nthu.edu.tw
23
Outline
• Discourse markers
– What are “discourse markers”
– Why “discourse markers”
– Typical examples
• Using visuals & approximate words
–
–
–
–
Types of visuals
Why using visuals
Highlight, comment on, and interpret visuals
Approximate words
• Supportive skills
– Sound scripting
– Body language
– Survival language
• Other lessons learned
電子化知識管理實驗室 Http://ekmlab.ie.nthu.edu.tw
24
Other Lessons Learned (1)
• A good teacher never teaches.
+
電子化知識管理實驗室 Http://ekmlab.ie.nthu.edu.tw
25
Other Lessons Learned (2)
• Try to be a student, to understand students
– Participation, interaction, practice,…
• Improve presentation & writing skills in any
language
– Discourse markers
– Using visuals & approximate words
– Sound scripting
– Using body language & survival language
電子化知識管理實驗室 Http://ekmlab.ie.nthu.edu.tw
26
Many thanks
for your attention...
侯建良教授
清華大學工業工程與工程管理學系
Email: [email protected]
URL: http://ekmlab.ie.nthu.edu.tw
Tel: 03-5742658
Fax: 03-5722685
電子化知識管理實驗室 Http://ekmlab.ie.nthu.edu.tw
27
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