TEACHING SPEAKING FOR YOUNG LEARNER

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LOGO
TEACHING SPEAKING FOR
YOUNG LEARNER
Reza Ajie Saputra
TEACHING SPEAKING FOR
YOUNG LEARNER
Teaching
Speaking has
Young
Learners are
been undervalued and
English language
teachers have
continued to teach
speaking just as a
repetition of drills or
memorization of
dialogues
individuals of very early
age who are interested
in many new things
such as a foreign
language, English.
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INTRODUCTION
The meaning of
speaking
The difference
between
knowledge and
skill
Characteristics of
spoken language
Spontaneity
Time-constraint
DISCUSSION
CONCLUSION
Teaching
Speaking For
Young Learners
Add Your
Text here
The Basics
Motivating
Students to
Speak
Strategies that
Encourage
Participation
Techniques to
Teach Speaking
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INTRODUCTION
The meaning of
speaking
Time-Constraints
Characteristic of
spoken language
The Difference
Between
Knowledge and
skill
Spontaneity
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INTRODUCTION
Meaning of Speaking
Speaking is "the process of building and sharing meaning
through the use of verbal and non-verbal symbols, in a
variety of contexts". Speaking is a crucial part of second
language learning and teaching. Despite its importance, for
many years, teaching speaking has been undervalued and
English language teachers have continued to teach
speaking just as a repetition of drills or memorization of
dialogues.
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INTRODUCTION
 Characteristics of spoken language:
 Speaking is a skill, just like swimming,
driving a car, or playing ping-pong.
 Too often, in the traditional classroom,
the learning of English has been
relegated to linguistic knowledge only,
e.g. knowledge of vocabulary and
grammar rules, with little or no
attention paid to practising language
skill.
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INTRODUCTION
 Spontaneity
 In most situations, people do not plan
ahead of time what they are going to say.
 The fact that speech is spontaneous
means that it is full of false starts,
repetitions, incomplete sentences, and
short phrases.
 Should we expect the students to
produce complete sentences in language
classroom?
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INTRODUCTION
 Time-constraint
 The students must be able to produce
unplanned utterances in real time;
otherwise people will not have the
patience to listen to them.
 Which of the following activities do you
think would help to prepare students for
real life speech in English?
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INTRODUCTION
Many language learners regard speaking ability as
the measure of knowing a language.
Language learners need to recognize that
speaking involves three areas of knowledge:
 Mechanics (pronunciation, grammar, and
vocabulary)
 Functions (transaction and interaction)
 Social and cultural rules and norms (turntaking, rate of speech, length of pauses
between speakers, relative roles of
participants)
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DiSCUSSION
Knowing the Basics
Teaching
Speaking For
Young
Learners
Motivating Students to Speak
Strategies That Encourage Participation
Method to Speaking
Technique to Teach Speaking
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DISCUSSION
Teaching Speaking For Young Learners
Teaching speaking for young language learners (YLLs) is
an interesting and challenging duty for teachers for some
considerations. In one hand, YLLs are individuals of very
early age who are interested in many new things such as a
foreign language, English. In this level, young learners
seem to have the same proficiency in speaking that is
novice level. The characteristic of novice level is the
students’ ability to communicate minimally with learned
material and oral production consists of isolated words and
perhaps a few high-frequency phrases essentially no
functional communication ability.
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DISCUSSION
Knowing The Basics
Young learners are like sponges, they soak up everything
we say and how we say it. Thus clear and correct
pronunciation is of vital importance, since young learners
repeat exactly what they hear. What has been learned at
an early stage is difficult to change later on. One of the
rules that apply here is: slowly and steadily, through
constant revision and recycling.
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DISCUSSION
 always strive to achieve a positive and relaxed
atmosphere in young learners’ classroom, as this proved
a decisive factor in achieving maximum results. With the
help of mixed activities, such as dialogues, choral
revision, chants, songs, poems and rhymes students’
speaking abilities grow, their pronunciation gets better
and their awareness of the language improves
 Interaction is an important way of learning. Therefore,
increased oral emphasis should be included in our
teaching to give the students as much speaking time as
possible.
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DISCUSSION
Motivating Students to Speak
To motivate students in EFL contexts, teachers should
include many activities and strategies that attract students’
attention and make them interested in the lesson.
 Activities need to be child centered and communication
should be authentic.
 the teacher should consider in the activities: a focus on
meaning and value, not correctness; a focus on
collaboration and social development; the provision of a
rich context, and teaching the four skills through a
variety of activities.
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DISCUSSION
Strategies that Encourage Participation
To motivate students in EFL contexts, teachers should
include many activities and strategies that attract students’
attention and make them interested in the lesson.
The teacher can use the model for teaching young learners
by using IPA (Imitating-Practicing control-Autonomy) as the
other strategy. Children love imitating.
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DISCUSSION
Method To
Teach Speaking
Learning the
Dialogues
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DISCUSSION
Learning the Dialogues
 Learning dialogues by heart is a definite no-no. It is
much better and far more useful to substitute the words
so that they are true to students and their world.
 Student uses his/her own variation, there is an obvious
transition from pure imitation to conscious changing,
which speeds up remembering and offers
varied
communicative opportunities.
 By imitating, sharing and discussing students benefit –
modeling, understanding and picking it up seem to be
natural..
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DISCUSSION
EXAMPLE :
A: What time is it?
B: It’s 3:00. Why?
A: Oh, I need to go to the store! Do you want to
come?
B: OK. Just a minute. I need to finish this first.
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DISCUSSION
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DISCUSSION
Songs, Poems, Rhymes and Chants
Using songs, poems, rhymes and chants is a wonderful
way of making students sing/talk and at the same time
(unconsciously) work at their grammar, vocabulary,
pronunciation. Try to include the above-mentioned
activities by providing learners with those that require total
physical response, shortly known as "TPR".
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DISCUSSION
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DISCUSSION
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DISCUSSION
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DISCUSSION
Reading Aloud
Reading aloud will get you used to hearing your own voice
and help you become more comfortable with delivering
written material orally. It can also help you build your
vocabulary so that you will stumble less frequently when
speaking unfamiliar words.
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DISCUSSION
Interviewing someone, or being interviewed
It helps to prepare students for real life speech.
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DISCUSSION
Doing a drill
It needs to be supplemented with more realistic activities
as the level increase.Also students must consider whom
they are talking to and be able to check if they are being
understood.
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DISCUSSION
Designing speaking tasks and
Using group work in speaking tasks
 One important consideration: Proficiency level of the students
(challenging but not too difficult.)
 If the task is too easy or too difficult, the students may be
demotivated.
 Advantages of using group work:
 More opportunities.
 More motivation.
 More authenticity.
 Different levels.
 More cooperation.
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DISCUSSION
Techniques to Teach Speaking
1. Information-gap activities (Compare 2 Activities)
Activity A
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DISCUSSION
Activity B
Use the same pictures, but cut them up, paste them on
cards, and give each student a different picture.
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DISCUSSION
2. Dialogues and role-plays
Example 1: Playing the roles in a dialogue
Step 1. Practise the dialogue in pairs
 A: What time is it?
 B: It’s 3:00. Why?
 A: Oh, I need to go to the store! Do you want to come?
 B: OK. Just a minute. I need to finish this first.
Step 2. Ask a few pairs to perform the dialogue in front of the whole
class, speaking in different moods such as happy, irritated, bored,
or in different role relationships such as parent and a child, husband
and wife, two friends, etc.
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DISCUSSION
Factors that affect the success of role-plays (Ur, 1996:133)
 Teacher’s enthusiasm;
 Careful instructions;
 Clear situation and roles;
 Making sure that the students have the language they
will need to carry out the role-play.
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DISCUSSION
3. Find Someone who...
 Stand up and walk around the room. Ask your classmates what they
like to do. Remember, you must speak in English only!
Find someone who
Name
likes to swim
likes to play basketball
likes to play badminton
likes to play tennis
likes to play football
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DISCUSSION
4. A model conversation can be provided.
 A: Hi, Tom.
 B: Hi, Sherry.
 A: I’m conducting a survey for our school newspaper.
Could you tell me, do you like to swim?
 B: Yes, I do. In fact, usually go swimming once or twice
a week.
 A: Great. Would you mind signing your name here for
me please?
 B: Sure, there you are.
 A: thanks a lot. See you around.
 B: See you.
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