Iowa Demographics and Organizational Culture

Iowa Workforce and Demographic
Changes: Implications for the
Organizational Culture of Iowa
State Extension and Outreach
Lyn Brodersen, Ph.D.
Annual ISUEO Conference
March 2014
Questions for the Future:
1963
C.A. Vines, Director , Agricultural Extension
Service, University of Arkansas, Little Rock,
posed alternatives for the future of
Extension in a talk at Colorado State
University in Fort Collins on June 18, 1963.
How will Extension Adapt?
According to Vines, Watts, and Parks (1963):
It is apparent that problems are becoming more
complex as changes take place in the economic
and social structures of the nation. Many problems
facing farm people are outside agriculture. We
must involve competencies that go beyond those
in the college of agriculture because of the
interrelationships in present day society. (p. 241242)
Three Alternatives
1. Provide informal education in forestry, families,
agriculture, and related fields in both urban and
rural areas without responsibility for
development of additional resources or the
community.
2. Provide the aforementioned informal education
and provide leadership for resource and
community development in rural areas.
Three Alternatives
3. Broaden Extension’s role to include all
informal educational efforts, from all colleges
housed within the University, in both rural
and urban areas (Vines, Watts, & Parks,
1963).
Where Do We Fit?
Consider the alternatives Vines posed fifty
years ago. How do those alternatives fit the
nature of our work with the citizens of Iowa
today?
Iowa Poverty Rates by Age 2007-2011
400,000
350,000
300,000
250,000
Number in Poverty
200,000
Percentage in Poverty
150,000
100,000
50,000
12.7 12.5 11.8 11.4 11.0 17.1 16.2 15.6 14.2 13.7 15.4 14.2 13.0 12.0 11.7 20.0 20.0 20.1 17.8 17.2
0
2011 2010 2009 2008 2007 2011 2010 2009 2008 2007 2011 2010 2009 2008 2007 2011 2010 2009 2008 2007
All Ages
Under 18 Years
5-17 Years
0-4 Years
State Data Center of Iowa. (2013). Iowa small area poverty rates 2007-2011 [Data file]. Available from http://www.iowadatacenter.org/
Median Earnings of Males 16+ 2008-2012
Self-employed in own not incorporated business workers
and unpaid family workers
Federal government workers
Geography
State government workers
Local government workers
Iowa
Private not-for-profit wage and salary workers
Self-employed in own incorporated business workers
Employee of private company workers
0
10000
20000
30000
40000
50000
60000
Median Earnings
State Data Center of Iowa. (2013). Iowa sex by class of worker and median income 2008-2012 [Data file]. Available from http://www.iowadatacenter.org/
Median Earnings of Females 16+ 2008-2012
Self-employed in own not incorporated business workers
and unpaid family workers
Federal government workers
Geography
State government workers
Local government workers
Iowa
Private not-for-profit wage and salary workers
Self-employed in own incorporated business workers
Employee of private company workers
0
10000
20000
30000
40000
50000
60000
Median Earnings
State Data Center of Iowa. (2013). Iowa sex by class of worker and median income 2008-2012 [Data file]. Available from http://www.iowadatacenter.org/
Iowa Educational Attainment by Place of Birth
2007-2011
Graduate or professional degree
Educational Attainment
Bachelor's degree
Foreign born
Some college or associate's degree
Native, born outside the United States
Born in other state in the United States
Born in state of residence
High school graduate (includes equivalency)
Less than high school graduate
0
100000
200000
300000
400000
500000
600000
Estimate
State Data Center of Iowa. (2013). Iowa educational attainment by place of birth 2007-2011 [Data file]. Available from http://www.iowadatacenter.org/
2000-2010
• U.S. population grew 9.7%; Iowa’s grew
4.1%
• State metropolitan centers accounted for
10.1% population growth, while the rural
areas of Iowa accounted for a decline of
5.4% (Swenson, 2013)
2000-2010
Changes in young adult population
• According to Swenson (2013), nationally, the
group of adults aged 35-44 declined by about
9%. This was due to a decline in the birth rate
after 1969.
• In Iowa, the group of adults aged 35-44 declined
by over 18%. In rural areas, the decline was
30.4%.
• The number of adults aged 24-34 in Iowa grew
by 5.4%. The decline in rural areas was 5.3%.
Outmigration
• The adults who left the State are in age
categories that make them among the
most productive, skilled, and educated
Iowans.
• Many of the adults who left the state had
children as well. Iowa will feel the echo of
this loss in about 20 years.
Outmigraton
• Workers aged 35-44 who departed
would have composed most of the
State’s leadership in social, political,
and cultural efforts.
What is to come?
2012-2020
• Nationally, the labor force over age 55
will grow by over 11 million.
• Workers aged 25-54 will increase by
only 1.7 million compared to 2010.
• Workers aged 16-24 will contract by
2.6 million (Swenson, 2013).
Projected Iowa population
changes 2010-2020
• Swenson (2013) projects that workers age 45 to
64 will suffer a loss of 117,203.
• The number of workers age 16-64 will decline by
74,142.
• The population of Iowa over age 65 will grow by
106,740.
• The State’s population over the age of 16 will
grow, collectively, by 32,598.
Citizens over 60
• The Iowa Department on Aging indicates
that, as of December 2012, Iowa ranks
11th of the 50 states in percentage of
population over age 60, at 21.2%.
Iowa Department on Aging. (2013). States ranked by age group as % of the total population: Population estimates July 1, 2012 [Data file]. Retrieved
from https://www.iowaaging.gov/sites/files/aging/documents/States%20Ranked%20by%20Age%20Group%20_2012%20Estimates.pdf
Citizens over 75
• Iowa ranks 4th of 50 states in the
percentage of total population over age
75. In 2012, 7.5% of the State’s
population, a total of 229,761, were in this
category.
Iowa Department on Aging. (2013). States ranked by age group as % of the total population: Population estimates July 1, 2012 [Data file]. Retrieved
from https://www.iowaaging.gov/sites/files/aging/documents/States%20Ranked%20by%20Age%20Group%20_2012%20Estimates.pdf
Iowa Population over 65
U.S. Census Bureau,
American Community
Survey, 2011
Woods & Poole
Economics, Inc.2013
The Aging of Iowa
44.6%
The percent of total population in Wahpeton who
were age 65 and over in 2010. Other Iowa cities
with high percentages in this age group were
Beaconsfield (40.0%),Ledyard (36.9%), Clio
(36.3%) and Diagonal (36.1%).
17.8%
The percent of the total population age 65 and
over in 2010 who lived in Des Moines, Cedar
Rapids, Davenport, Sioux City, Waterloo, and
Dubuque.
State Data Center of Iowa. (2013). Older Iowans: 2013 [Data file]. Retrieved from http://www.iowadatacenter.org/Publications/older2013.pdf
The Aging of Iowa
43
The number of Iowa counties with a decrease in
the population age 65 and over between 2010
and 2011.
83
The number of Iowa counties in 2040 in which at
least 20% of the residents will be age 65 and over,
according to Woods & Pool Economics, Inc. In
2000, that number was 30.
22,318
The number of people age 65 and over in Des
Moines, making it the largest population of this
age group in any Iowa city in 2010.
State Data Center of Iowa. (2013). Older Iowans: 2013 [Data file]. Retrieved from http://www.iowadatacenter.org/Publications/older2013.pdf
The Aging of Iowa
47,984
The number of people age 65 and over in Polk
County, making it the largest population of this age
group in any county in 2011.
23.8%
The percent of total population in Calhoun county
who are age 65 and over in 2011. Other Iowa
counties with a high percentage in this age group
are Monona (23.6%); Ringgold (23.6%), Audubon
(23.4%), Dickinson (22.4%), and Sac (22.3%).
37.0%
Over a quarter of Iowans age 65 and over in 2011
lived in Polk, Linn, Scott, Black Hawk, Dubuque,
Pottawattamie, Woodbury, and Johnson counties.
State Data Center of Ioaa. (2013). Older Iowans: 2013 [Data file]. Retrieved from http://www.iowadatacenter.org/Publications/older2013.pdf
Iowa Population Over 65
U.S. Census Bureau,
American Community
Survey, 2011
Woods & Poole
Economics, Inc.2013
Implications for our work
• Economic stagnation
• Workforce shortages
• Population shifts to Iowa’s urban
centers
• Stress on families
• Poverty-related issues
Implications for our work
• Decreased and aging populations in rural
areas, resulting in more pronounced
effects on economics and lifestyle
• Economic and demographic patterns may
provide increased incentives for
outmigration
How do these implications
affect Extension and Outreach?
• The shift in population to urban centers will
change who we serve and the ways in
which we work.
• Rural economics and lifestyle will undergo
rapid and significant changes.
• Outmigration will change the nature of
research, content, and delivery methods.
How do Vines’ alternatives
look today?
• Consider Vines’ suggestion that we serve both
rural and urban areas, and offer programs from
all colleges housed in the University.
• Given our discussion of workforce and
demographics, how might we shape the culture
of our organization to meet the challenges of
educational leadership, as well as economic and
community development?
What is Organizational Culture?
• Artifacts
• Underlying Assumptions
• Espoused Values (Schein, 1992)
C Renando. (2010, November 21). Organisational culture
defined, courtesy of Edgar Schein. [Web log comment].
Retrieved from http://www.sidewaysthoughts.com/blog/2010/11/
Organizational Culture Defined
• Berrio (2003) defines contemporary organizational
culture (OC) as “inclusive of that which is valued, the
dominant leadership style, the language and
symbols, the procedures and routines, and the
definitions of success” that distinguish one
organization from another. OC represents the
underlying assumptions, values, expectations,
collective histories, and definitions present in an
organization (Schein, 1992; Cameron & Quinn,
1999).
Dimensions of Organizational Culture
Z Liu. (2009, October 6). Organizational culture and environment: The constraintsdimensions of organizational culture. [Web log comment]. Retrieved from
http://healthymethod.blogspot.com/2009/12/organizations-culture.html
Competing Values Framework
• According to Berrio (2003), Cameron and Quinn (1999)
developed an organizational culture framework built
upon a theoretical model called the "Competing Values
Framework."
• This Framework refers to whether an organization has a
predominant internal or external focus and whether it
strives for flexibility and individuality or stability and
control. The Framework is based on six organizational
culture dimensions and four dominant culture types (i.e.,
clan, adhocracy, market, and hierarchy).
Competing Values Framework
• Cameron and Quinn (1999) created an
Organizational Culture Assessment Instrument
(OCAI) that is used to profile distinct
organizational cultures.
• This identification is based on the core values,
assumptions, interpretations, and approaches
that characterize a specific organization.
Dominant Culture Types
• Berrio (2003) asserts that the Competing Values
Framework can be used in constructing an
organizational culture profile.
• Through the use of the OCAI, an organization’s
cultural profile can be extrapolated by identifying
the organization's dominant culture type
characteristics. The wider cultural profile of an
organization can be identified as:
Dominant Culture Types
• Clan: an organization focused on internal maintenance
with emphases on flexibility, people, and heightened
sensitivity toward those the organization serves.
• Hierarchy: an organization rooted in internal
maintenance, with control and stability as priorities.
• Adhocracy: an organization driven by external
positioning and forces. An adhocracy is characterized by
high degrees of individuality and flexibility.
• Market: an organization that emphasizes external
maintenance, with control and stability as priorities.
D Ronfeldt. (2009, May 13). Organizational forms compared: My evolving TIMN table vs. other
analysts’ tables. [Web log comment]. Retrieved from http://twotheories.blogspot.com/2009/05
D Ronfeldt. (2009, May 13). Organizational forms compared: My
evolving TIMN table vs. other analysts’ tables. [Web log comment].
Retrieved from http://twotheories.blogspot.com/2009/05
A Guberman. Organizational health. [Web log comment].
Retrieved from www.primarygoals.net
CREATE Cultural Change
• CLARIFY organizational values; create connections between
leader values and organizational values
• REINFORCE the vision; ensure that everyone in the
organization is clear about vision and values
• EMPOWER behaviors aligned to values and vision;
remove obstacles
• ALIGN conversations up and down the organization
• TARGET effort on high impact areas
• EMPHASIZE success; reward change
M Lanier. (2012, April 11). 6 steps to change your organizational culture. [Web log comment]. Retrieved from
http://hroutsider.com/2012/04/11/6-steps-to-change-your-organizational-culture/
References
Berrio, A. A. (2003). An organizational culture assessment using the competing values framework: A profile of Ohio
State University Extension. Journal of Extension, 41 (2). Retrieved from
http://www.joe.org/joe/2003april/a3.php
Cameron, K. S., & Quinn, R. E. (1999). Diagnosing and changing organizational culture. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.
Guberman, A. Organizational health. [Web log comment]. Retrieved from www.primarygoals.net
Iowa Department on Aging. (2013). States ranked by age group as % of the total population: Population estimates July
1, 2012 [Data file]. Retrieved from
https://www.iowaaging.gov/sites/files/aging/documents/States%20Ranked%20by%20Age%20Group%202
12%20Estimates.pdf
Lanier, M. (2012, April 11). 6 steps to change your organizational culture. [Web log comment]. Retrieved from
http://hroutsider.com/2012/04/11/6-steps-to-change-your-organizational culture/
Liu, Z. (2009, October 6). Organizational culture and environment: The constraints-dimensions of organizational culture.
[Web log comment]. Retrieved from http://healthymethod.blogspot.com/2009/12/organizations-culture.html
References
Renando, C. (2010, November 21). Organisational culture defined, courtesy of Edgar Schein. [Web log comment].
Retrieved from http://www.sidewaysthoughts.com/blog/2010/11/
Ronfeldt, D. (2009, May 13). Organizational forms compared: My evolving TIMN table vs. other analysts’ tables. [Web
log comment]. Retrieved from http://twotheories.blogspot.com/2009/05
Schein, E. H. (1992). Organizational culture and leadership (2nd ed.). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
State Data Center of Iowa. (2013). Iowa educational attainment by place of birth 2007-2011 [Data file]. Available from
http://www.iowadatacenter.org/
State Data Center of Iowa (2013). Iowa metropolitan areas (2003 definition) [Data file]. Available from
http://www.iowadatacenter.org/
State Data Center of Iowa. (2013). Iowa sex by class of worker and median income 2008-2012 [Data file].
Available from http://www.iowadatacenter.org/
References
State Data Center of Iowa. (2013). Iowa small area poverty rates 2007-2011 [Data file]. Available from
http://www.iowadatacenter.org/
State Data Center of Iowa. (2013). Older Iowans: 2013 [Data file]. Retrieved from
http://www.iowadatacenter.org/Publications/older2013.pdf
Swenson, D.A. (2013). Factors constraining Iowa labor force growth through 2020. Department of Economics
Staff Report, Iowa State University.
U.S. Census Bureau. (2013). American Community Survey, 2011, Woods & Poole Economics, Inc., 2013 [Data file].
Available from http://www.iowadatacenter.org/
Vines, C.A., Watts, L.H., & Parks, W.R. (1963). Extension’s future. Journal of Cooperative Extension, 1 (4), 239-246.