Chapter 7, Section 4
Mannerism emerged in Italy sometime in
the 1520s and 1530s as the Renaissance
came to an end.
It reflected this new environment in art
by deliberately breaking down the High
Renaissance principles of balance,
harmony, and moderation.
Rules of proportion were deliberately
ignored as elongated figures were used
to show suffering and heightened
Mannerism reached its high point in the
work of El Greco (“the Greek”) who
used elongated and contorted figures to
reflect the religious upheavals of the
The Baroque Period
 The baroque movement eventually replaced mannerism.
 Baroque artists tried to bring together the classical ideals
of Renaissance art with the spiritual feelings of the
sixteenth-century religious revival.
 This artistic style was noted for its use of dramatic effects
to arouse the motions, and in large part, reflected the
search for the power that was such a part of the
seventeenth century.
 Baroque churches and palaces were magnificently and
richly detailed – Kings and princes wanted other kings
and princes and their subjects to be in awe of their power.
Baroque Art
 Gian Lorenzo Bernini was
perhaps the greatest figure of
this period.
 He was known for
completing Saint Peter’s
Basilica in Rome and the
Throne of Saint Peter, a
highly decorated cover for the
pope’s medieval wooden
The Throne of Saint Peter
Completed in 1666, Bernini’s
“Throne of Saint Peter” took
eleven years to finish.
How do you think Bernini
wanted his work to impact the
The Golden Age of Literature
 In both England and Spain, writing for the theater
reached new heights between 1580 and 1640.
 In the late sixteenth century leading into the
seventeenth, a cultural flowering known as the
Elizabethan Era took place.
 Of all the forms of Elizabethan literature, none
expressed the energy better than drama, and of all
the dramatists, none is more famous than William
William Shakespeare
 Shakespeare was a playwright, actor and shareholder in the
chief theater company of the time, Lord Chamberlain’s Men.
 He wrote around 40 plays and coined more than 1,700 words in
the English language.
 A “complete man of the theater,” Shakespeare has long been
viewed as a universal genius and master of the English
Shakespeare’s Works
Romeo and Juliet
A Midsummer Night’s Dream
Richard III
Shakespeare’s words…
Love Sick
Spanish Literature
 Lope de Vega – wrote over 1,700 plays – 500 of which still survive.
They were characterized as witty, charming, action-packed and
 Miguel de Cervantes – wrote Don Quixote, one of the crowning
achievements of the golden age of Spanish literature.
 In Quixote, we meet Don Quixote from La Mancha who is so
involved in his ideals that he does not see the hard realities around
him. For example, he wages battle against a windmill that he sees
to be a four-legged beast.
Don Quixote and Sancho Panza
Political Thought
 Thomas Hobbes – wrote Leviathan which was
published in 1651.
 Claimed that before society was organized, human
life was “solitary, poor, nasty, brutish, and short.”
 Believed humans were guided not by reason and
moral ideals but by a ruthless struggle for self
 Thought that only a powerful government could
create a peaceful and orderly society.
Political Thought
 John Locke – wrote Two Treatises of
 Locke argued against the absolute rule of
one person.
 Believed that before society was organized,
humans lived in a state of equality and
 Said that humans had certain natural rights
– life, liberty and property.
 Believed government would protect the
rights of the people and they would act
reasonably toward the government. BUT, if
the government broke the contract, the
people might form a new government.
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