Kanghee Lee 1. Accommodation in ELF 2. Accommodation in CAT 3. Accommodative strategies- convergence, divergence, maintenance 4. Motivations and consequences of accommodation 5. Types of accommodation- psychological (subjective)/linguistic(objective) 6. Optimal levels of convergence and divergence - over-, under-accommodation 7. Research in CAT 8. The research questions 9. The pilot study- focus group & semi-structured interview 10. Reference Accommodation – adjusting speech to facilitate communication or changing one’s speech to make it more intelligible or sometimes converging one’s spoken habits to resemble those of one’s interlocutors (Cogo 2009: 254) Mauranen (2007: 244) – ‘Adaptability and intercultural negotiation skills’ → an essential requirement for successful communication in ELF settings Jenkins (2000, 2006) –ELF speakers need to adjust their speech in order to be intelligible to interlocutors from a wide range of L1 backgrounds. Deterding and Kirkpatrick (2006) - the most important skill → the ability to accommodate one’s pronunciation to the needs and the knowledge of one’s listeners Cogo and Dewey (2006) - accommodation → one of the prevailing strategies in ELF pragmatics. Seidlhofer (2004) - drawing on extralinguistic cues, identifying and building on shared knowledge, gauging and adjusting to interlocutors’ linguistic repertoires, supportive listening, signalling non-comprehension in a face-saving way, asking for repetition or paraphrasing • Mauranen (2007) – the high demand for ‘clarity’ and ‘explicitness’ Rephrasing, topic negotiation, and discourse reflexivity → Adaptive ELF discourse strategies • Cogo (2009) - repetition and code-switching→ accommodative strategies for communicative efficiency and cooperation, signalling affiliation to their community & identifying them as members of one of the multilingual ELF communities • Kaur (2009) – ELF speakers pre-empt problems of understanding Repetition & paraphrasing → repair strategies for potential problems of understanding CAT- to describe and explain speech modification and the underlying motivations, communication processes, and consequences of shifts Convergence : to make their speech and communication patterns similar to that of their interlocutors to gain approval from an interlocutor and to facilitate comprehension or improve the effectiveness Divergence: to accentuate the communicative difference between themselves and their interlocutors to display distinctiveness from one’s interlocutor or to reinforce their positive sense of identity (maintenance) Maintenance: to persist the speech style and pattern, socially divergent behaviour Linguistic accommodation (objective accommodation) - actual speech behaviour (Gallois et al. 2005: 126). Psychological accommodation (subjective accommodation) - speakers’ motivations and intentions to converge or diverge (Thakerar et al 1982; Gallois et al. 2005: 126). Over-accommodation – patronising or ingratiating moves (e.g. foreigner talk or baby talk / patronising talk for the elders) Under-accommodation - speaker’s maintenance of linguistic behaviour and discourse patterns 1. Most research on CAT is based on NS-NS interactions 2. Mainly focus on phonological accommodation, not syntactic or pragmatics 3. The lack of accommodation in NS-NNS interactions → the limitation of NNSs’ proficiency 1. What kinds of accommodation strategies do East Asian ELF speakers typically use? 2. To what extent are East Asian ELF speakers aware of accommodation in their communication? 3. How does accommodation vary according to a range of sociolinguistic variables? 4. What are the implications for ELT in East Asia? Focus group pre-sessional MA students from Korea (maletransportation engineering), Taiwan (male-material engineering), China (female-marketing), and Thailand (male-maritime engineering) Semi-structured interview 1. Chinese MA student (Linguistics-female) and 1 Taiwanese MA student (Business and Managementfemale). → Difficult to find dynamic accommodative interaction 1. Is focus group not adequate as a research method for accommodation? 2. The lack of acquaintance among participants 3. Alternative method Cogo , A. and M. Dewey. 2006. ‘Efficiency in ELF Communication: From Pragmatic Motives to Lexico-grammatical Innovation,’ Nordic Journal of English Studies, Vol. 5, No. 2 Cogo, A. 2009, Accommodaing Difference in ELF Concersations: A study of Pragmatic Strategies in Mauranen & Ranta (eds.) English as a Lingua Franca: Studies and Findings, p 254-273. Newcastle, UK: Cambridge Scholars Publishing. Deterding and Kirkpatrick 2006 Emerging South-East Asian Englishes and intelligibility . World Englishes, Vol. 25, Issue 3-4, p. 315-529 Gallois et al. 2005. Communication Accommodation Theory in Gudykunst W. (ED.), Theorising about Intercultural Communication, Sage, Language Arts & Disciplines. Giles et al. 1991. Context s of Accommodation. Cambridege, UK : Cambridge University Press.. Jenkins , J. 2000. The Phonology of English as an International Language. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press Jenkins, J. 2006. ‘Current Perspectives on Teaching World Englishes and English as a Lingua Franca’. TESOL Quarterly, Vol.40, No. 1, pp. 157-181 Kaur , J. 2009, Pre-empting Problems of Understanding in English as a Lingua Franca in Mauranen & Ranta (eds.) English as a Lingua Franca: Studies and Findings, p 107-123. Newcastle, UK: Cambridge Scholars Publishing. Mauranen , A. 2007. “Hybrid VoIces: English a the Lingua Franca of Academics” in Language and Discipline Perspectives on Academic Discourse, ed. Kjersti Flottum, 243-59. Newcastle, UK: Cambridge Scholars Publishing Seidlhofer B. 2004. Research Perspectives on teaching English as a Lingua Franca. Annual Review of Applied Linguistics 24: 209-239 Thekerar et al. 1982. Psychological and linguistic parameters of speech accommodation theory. In C.Fraser & K.R. Scherer (Eds.), Advances in the social psychology of language (p. 205-255). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.