Use of Simulation/Exercise in Disaster Preparedness

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Dr. Charles W. Beadling
Central Asia Regional Health Security Conference
17-19 April 2012
Garmisch-Partenkirchen, Germany
Overview:
 Phases of Effective Disaster Response
 Disaster Risk Reduction, Disaster Preparedness
 Disaster Preparedness Cycle
 Simulation/Exercise as a Tool
 Purposes
 Table Top
 Live
 What are your main threats?
3 Phases of Disaster Response
Prepare
Respond
Recover
Prepare
Actions taken before
an incident:
 Analyzing threats, risks
 Risk reduction
 Planning
 Rehearsal (Exercise)
 Community education
Disaster Risk
 Disaster Risk is frequently calculated as:
Risk = Hazard X Vulnerability
 Hazard: threat; the frequency of potential adverse
event
 Frequency of a hurricane hitting Florida = 1.4 per year
 Vulnerability: likelihood of adverse outcomes
 Concentrations of populations in flood plains
 Socio-economic vulnerability, urbanization
Disaster Preparedness Reduces
Disaster Risk
Methods of risk reduction
 Prevention
 Transportation safety
 Industrial standards
 Limit adverse effects
 Mitigation: Improve
structures in seismic area
 Improve Disaster
Preparedness
Respond
 First Responders
 Fire, Police, Medical
 Order on chaos
 Coordination
 Command structure
 Decontamination?
 Chemical, Biological,
Radiological
 Persisting threats?
 Secondary device
 Search and rescue
Recovery
 Short term – days to weeks
 Clean up
 Essential services
 Psychological support
 Long term – months to years
 Rebuild
Preparedness Cycle
Plan
Evaluate &
Improve
Capability
Building
Exercise
Organize,
Train &
Equip
Plan
 Collect and analyze data
 What crises have
occurred?
 What was the result?
 Develop laws, policies,
plans and procedures
 General “all hazards”
 Specific threats
 National, local levels
need to be aligned
Organize, Train and Equip
 Organize
 Leadership and teams
 Triage, Treatment,
Decontamination,
Evacuation, etc.
 Train: Individuals and
teams
 Performance standards
 Equip: Depend on size,
roles
Exercises
Exercises
 Test plans – identify gaps
 Improve proficiency
 Familiarize with plans
 Familiarize with roles
 Assess performance
 Validate certification
Exercises
 Improve coordination
 Improve communication
 Identify risks for
reduction
 Low risk environment
 Table top exercises
 Live exercises
Table Top Exercises
Advantages:
 No need for equipment
 Not effected by weather
 Test plans for gaps
 Gain experience with roles
and responsibilities
 Practice coordination and
communication
 Those without experience
learn from those with
experience
Disadvantages:
 Lose effect of time & space
 No experience operating
equipment
 Risk unrealistic solutions
Live Exercises
Advantages:
 More realistic experience
 Exposure to weather,
terrain
Disadvantages:
 Expense
 Time lost from work
 Impact of weather
Community involvement
 Workplace exercises
 Fire response
 Evacuation
 School drills – shelter,
active shooter
 Test emergency warning
– sirens, radio/television
announcements
 City evacuation routes
Evaluate and Improve
 Review actions after exercise
 Were there situations not adequately covered in plan?
 Was there adequate resources – protective equipment,
food stocks?
 Correct plans, resources, training as needed
 There will be another opportunity – if it is a real
disaster, be ready!
Homeland Security Exercise and
Evaluation Program
 A standardized




methodology and
terminology for exercise
design, development,
conduct, evaluation, and
improvement planning
Policy & guidance
Online training courses
Tools & technology
Technical assistance
https://hseep.dhs.gov/pages/1001_HSEEP7.aspx
Summary
 3 Phases to a disaster
 Prepare, Respond, Recover
 Risk = Hazard X Vulnerability
 Preparedness Cycle:
Plan
Organize,
Train &
Equip
Evaluate &
Improve
Exercise
Summary: Exercises
 Test plans – identify gaps
 Improve coordination
 Improve proficiency
 Familiarize with plans
 Familiarize with roles
 Assess performance
 Improve communication
 Validate certification
 Identify risks for
reduction
 Low risk environment
 Table top exercises
 Live exercises
Questions?
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