En dit is dan de titel - International Development Studies

Positive contributions
Sports mega events
Sports mega events increasingly take place in the
metropolises of emerging
countries, and can be seen as
a catalyst for urban development, image building,
economic growth, and
broader development. They
are used as a marketing tool
to boost tourism, improve
infra-structure, and make a
state more visible within the
international competition for
foreign and domestic
FIFA World Cup in South Africa
In 2004, South Africa was awarded the bid to
host the Federations Internationale de Football
Association (FIFA) World Cup. Thereby, South
Africa was the first African nation to host the
World Cup in 2010. Celebrations followed
both in South Africa and the entire African
continent. These were not only for the love of
the game, but also because the World Cup is
part of Africa’s journey into a century of
growth and development.
(Steinbrink, Haferburg and Ley, 2011)
“We want to show that
Africa’s time has come”
To ensure that the World Cup contributes
to growth and development goals, the
government certifies that the hosting of the
tournament brings opportunities that can
be accessed by South Africans in a way that
will empower those who were systematically excluded from participation in the
economy under the apartheid. The South
African government invests in better sports
facilities, a better public transport system,
and better telecommunications infrastructure. Moreover, the tournament promotes a
healthy lifestyle through sports and fosters
pride in the country and the continent. The
FIFA World Cup also stimulates development in neighbouring countries. For
example, Mozambique invested $51 million
on the rehabilitation of their railway system
and road network. (2010 FIFA World Cup™ Organising
Committee South Africa)
– President Mbeki, 2003
responses to forced evictions,
p. 29-43.
COHRE (2009), “Imminent
forced eviction of residents of
Symphony Way, Cape Town”,
Letter to Mayor Plato of Cape
Town, p. 1-3.
2010 FIFA World Cup™
Organising Committee South
Africa (2010). (http://www.gcis
Grudgings, S. (2011), “Brasil
Under Fire For World Cup
McAdams, M. (2010), “The
Dark Side of Brazil’s Olympic
Dreams: The 2016 Olympic
Host Battles Poverty, Violent
Crime, and Police Brutality”,
Research. (www.coha.org)
Newton, C. (2009), “The
Reverse Side of the Medal:
About the 2010 FIFA World
Cup and the Beautification of
the N2 in Cape Town”, Urban
Forum, Vol. 20, p. 93-108.
Raghavan, S. (2010), “South
Africa’s poor complain of
evictions as country prepares
to host World Cup”, The
Washington Post.
Smith, D. (2010), “Life in ‘Tin
Can Town’ for the South
Africans evicted ahead of
World Cup”, The Guardian.
Steinbrink, M., Haferburg, C.,
“Festivalisation and urban
renewal in the Global South:
socio-spatial consequences of
the 2010 FIFA World Cup”,
South African Geographical
Journal, Vol. 93 (1), p. 15-28.
Werth, C. (2010), “Kicked Out
for the Cup?”, Newsweek
South Africa is no exception
Cup Slum
Social injustice
Beautification & forced evictions
In preparation for the World Cup, South Africa
invested over $4 billion in infrastructure, such
as stadiums and transportation. As part of this
beautification process, thousands of poor
South Africans were displaced from informal
settlements to ‘temporary relocation areas’
(TRAs) in the nine host cities’ outskirts. Slum
clearance mostly affected settlements most
visible to media and international visitors (near
airports, stadiums or major roads). Shack
dwellers were forced to move to TRAs against
their will and without consultation. People in
TRAs live in highly inadequate conditions, far
away from their livelihoods and social
networks, and will not be moving soon.
(COHRE, 2009; Newton, 2009; Steinbrink et al., 2011; Werth, 2010)
Brazil, as host to both the 2014 FIFA World Cup and the
2016 Olympic Games, faces similar challenges as South
Africa had. In preparation for the World Cup, slums are
being cleared out and destroyed to make way for new
infrastructure projects. Moreover, many slums in Rio de
Janeiro and São Paulo are under the control of criminal
organisations. In order to give an appearance of safety to
the rest of the world, police have 'occupied' many slum
areas and have often responded to situations brutally and
with violence. (Grudgings, 2011; McAdams, 2010)
Brazil, and other future mega-event hosts should strive for a
balanced approach, one that still brings growth to the
country, but does not further marginalise vulnerable groups.
The South African
Constitution states that:
(1) Everyone has the right to have
access to adequate housing.
(2) The State must take reasonable
legislative and other measures,
within its available resources, to
achieve the progressive realisation of this right.
(3) No one may be evicted from
their home, or have their home
demolished, without an order of
court made after considering all
the relevant circumstances. No
legislation may permit arbitrary
evictions. (COHRE, 2008)
Blikkiesdorp or ‘Tin Can Town’ is a TRA in Delft, Cape Town.
Described by many as “a dumping place for people”, its
residents live in the following circumstances:
- Families of 5-7 people live in one-room shacks (3x6m),
constructed with thin tin and zinc sheets, providing no
protection against extreme weather conditions.
- Four shacks share one toilet and a water tap.
- Created to house 650 people, now accommodating 15,000.
- Located 16km out of town, far away from health care,
school and job opportunities. Transportation is expensive.
- Crime is high: many incidences of drugs, theft, and rape.
- Police is accused of brutality against residents.
- Starvation, tuberculosis and HIV are rife.
(COHRE, 2009; Raghavan, 2010; Smith, 2010)
“I lost my home because of the
World Cup” – eviction fighter
IDS Lecture Series (2011) - Zachary Coeman, Nike Festen, Mieke Bartholomeus
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