Chapter 35 America in World War II 1941-1945 Japanese Internment • Pearl Harbor= instant unity, no real worries about immigrants’ loyalties • Except the Japanese! • Issesi and Nisei racism, fear, greed • Executive Order 9066= “evacuation from west coast” • Korematsu vs. US 1944 • 1988= apology and reparations for damage Campaign Against the Japanese, Hollywood, California, 1923 Anti-Japanese Poster, World War II Government propaganda during the war exploited racial stereotypes, often depicting Japanese people with big teeth and poor vision. Japanese American Evacuees, 1942 After the U.S. Army’s Western Defense Command ordered the forced evacuation of all Japanese and Japanese Americans living on the Pacific Coast, families had no choice but to pack up whatever they could carry and move to the “relocation centers” hastily erected farther inland. Three Boys at Manzanar, by Toyo Miyatake (1895–1979) Miyatake was an acclaimed Japanese American photographer with his own studio in Los Angeles before he and his family were evacuated to the Manzanar internment camp. He was determined to pursue his craft there, at first working secretly and then with the knowledge of the authorities. His pictures are the only photographic records of daily camp life taken by an internee. The guards allowed him to step outside the barbed-wire fence to take this photograph. Mobilization • Military strategy= focus on Hitler first, use other Allies after to knock Japan out • Needed time and production to assist in war effort massive costs • War Productions Board • Liberty Ships built by Henry J. Kaiser • Increased farm production needed • Office of Price Administration • War Labor Board • Smith Connally Anti-strike Act June 1943 More than 6 million women—more than 3 million of them homemakers who had never before worked for wages—entered the work force during World War II. In contrast to the experience of women workers in World War I, many of these newly employed women continued as wage workers after the war ended. Migration and Racial Issues • Braceros Program • $6 million in contracts to Sunbelt • 1.6 million blacks left South= racial tension (mechanized cotton picker) • A Philip Randolph Fair Employment Practices Commission • Native American migration to cities • 1943 Zoot Suit Riot • 1943 Detroit Race Riot Few events in American history have moved the American people about so massively as World War II. The West and the South boomed, and several warindustry cities grew explosively. A majority of migrants from the South were blacks; 1.6 million African Americans left the region in the 1940s. Navajo Code Talkers, 1943 One of the best-kept secrets of World War II was the use of the Navajo language in a Marine Corps code designed to confuse the Japanese. Two marines in the leatherneck unit made up of Native Americans from Arizona and New Mexico transmitted in code during the battle for Bougainville Island in the South Pacific in 1943. Growing Economy • By end of war, GNP doubled= consumer spending! • Welfare state as a result of the war • War=National debt Pacific Theater of War • Japan attacked Pearl Harbor, Guam, Wake Island, Philippines, Hong Kong, Malaya (rubber and tin) • Burma Road Chiang Kai Shek • General Douglas MacArthur in Philippines retreat to Bataan and Corregidor • MacArthur ordered to Australia early 1942 “I shall return” Corregidor and Bataan Assaulting Japanese island fortresses in the Pacific was a bloody, costly business. These American soldiers perished as they stepped ashore at Buna beach in New Guinea in 1942. Their damaged landing craft wallows in the surf behind them. Appearing in Life magazine on September 20, 1943, nearly two years after Pearl Harbor, this was the first photograph of dead GIs that the War Department allowed to be published. Pacific Theater of War • US/Filipino forces (75,000) forced to surrender April 10, 1942 (Corregidor= May 6) • Bataan Death March • Japan moving toward Australia Battle of Coral Sea May 1942 • Battle of Midway June 1942 (Admiral Chester Nimitz) Pacific Theater of War • Island hopping= US strategy • August 1942 Guadalcanal • Pushed out of New Guinea by August 1944 • June 1944: Marianas and Battle of Philippine Sea European Theater of War • Battle of the AtlanticGerman Enigma Code • In North Africa Field Marshall Erwin Rommel pushed toward Suez Canal • Blocked by General Bernard Montgomery at Battle of El Alamein • Nazis moved toward Stalingrad hold at any cost! Soft Underbelly • USSR needed a 2nd front France? • Churchill wanted northern Africa and Italy • Operation Torch November 1942 headed by General Dwight D. Eisenhower • Casablanca Conference • Attacked Sicily and Italy August 1943Mussolini deposed • Germany invaded- Battles of Monte Cassino and Anzio to reach Rome Operation Overlord • Teheran Conference- decided on invasion through France • D Day: June 6, 1944= 1st day with amphibious landing in Normandy • Combined with French from south= Paris liberated by August 1944 Allies Landing in Normandy, June 6, 1944 Liberating France A GI from Des Moines, Iowa, receives a kiss of welcome from an elderly French couple after American troops liberated their town of St. Sauveur in August 1944. End of War in Europe • Starting December 1944: bombing raids on Germany pushing them back • Battle of the Bulge: last Nazi offensive • March 1945: Us troops at the Rhine River met Russians near Berlin • May 7, 1945: Germany surrendered, May 8th= VE Day World War II in Europe and North Africa, 1939–1945 Battle of the Bulge, December 1944–January 1945 End of War in Pacific • Japanese pushed out of New Guinea, MacArthur moved on Philippines • Return to Leyte island Battle of Leyte Gulf October 1944- decimated Japanese navy • Moved onto Luzon to liberate Manila (July 1945) • Battle of Iwo Jima March 1945 • Battle of Okinawa April-June 1945 The Flag Raising at Iwo Jima Atop Mount Suribachi, press photographer Joe Rosenthal snapped this dramatic picture, probably the most famous of the war. Atomic Bombs • Invasion of Japan set for November • Potsdam Conference- unconditional surrender called for • Manhattan Project completed ($2 billion) • August 6, 1945: Hiroshima bombed (180,000 dead, wounded, dying) • August 9, 1945: Nagasaki bombed • August 14, 1945= surrender, September 2, 1945= VJ Day Hiroshima, Japan, August 1945 Two stunned survivors walk through the unbelievable destruction. The single atomic blast at Hiroshima killed an estimated 130,000 Japanese.