Theoretical Foundations
Nvard V. Manasian [email protected]
 Among the multitude of theories explaining GG we
will concentrate on the 4 main theories that discuss
the nature and role of individuals, state, sovereignty
and the interactions of those:
International Regimes, collective goods
Rational Choice,
Hegemonic Stability
Dependency theory
Nvard V. Manasian [email protected]
 It stems from the principle of human nature being
 Instead it is the inadequate social institutions and
misunderstanding of leaders that created INJUSTICE,
 Being inevitable these vices could be minimized
through multilateral action and institutional reform
 And that is where democracy and market capitalism
become pillars of HUMAN FREEDOM
Nvard V. Manasian [email protected]
Hugo Grotius worked as a jurist in the Dutch Republic.
He is one of the founding father of international law
(where the subjects are states) based on natural law.
Enlightenment: Humans are rational and they can continuously improve their
conditions by just societies
19th century L: Modernize via scientific and industrial revolutions to come to a
democratic society and free trade
20th century L: collective security, self-determination, no power politics and
prevention of war
This has shaped the LIBERAL thought dwelling on the belief that cooperation is
possible, peace could be achieved through interdependence, knowledge,
democratic values and international organizations do work.
Nvard V. Manasian [email protected]
 The aftermath of WWII was characterized by realism
 1970s increased interdependence of states revived the
liberal thought
 Prisoner’s dilemma was used to justify that states are
bound to cooperate in a long run
Prisoner B Stays
Prisoner B Betrays
Prisoner A Stays
Each serves 6
Prisoner A: 10 years
Prisoner B: goes free
Prisoner A Betrays
Prisoner A: goes free
Prisoner B: 10 years
Each serves 5 years
Nvard V. Manasian [email protected]
 The fundamental principle of F is that states and individuals have basic
or functional needs
Fs see economic and social international cooperation as prerequisites
for peace and security, in this context the special agencies of UN are
explained (exp. WB, UNICEF, etc.)
Promotes a web of activities that would bring to more
interconnectedness and thus, interdependence
Key role of experts and their identity loss, loyalty vs. trust
F stands behind the drive of IGOs and not surprisingly most of them
sprung after WWII, both regional and global
F fails to explain why the wars remain? How to separate technical and
political issues?
Nvard V. Manasian [email protected]
 1970s legal thought dwelled not only on the formal
arrangements, but also on informal rules and norms
that could be standardized and codified (think of
Bologna process as an example)
 Here hegemonic states play a role and realism counts
as much as liberalism
 IGOs playing a major role in creating and legitimizing
the rules (exp. Convention on Crimes against
Nvard V. Manasian [email protected]
 Common grazing are for herds
 Collective Goods tangible and intangible such as peace,
environment, financial stability, Internet, quality, etc.
 Collective goods asks for interwoven action and
interdependent activity, here market fails to provide
mechanisms for CG, so other arrangements are needed
 Mutual trust developed and built via monitoring (exp.
 CG theory is used when explaining the Ozone layer and
high seas cooperation and arrangements and justify the
need for UN and other multilaterals
Nvard V. Manasian [email protected]
 Individuals seek to maximize their power and pursue
their interests
 R centers the action around the state which acts
through balance of power
 International Organizations are tools to be used by
states for their own interest, so the tools cannot
transform the actors as R believes
 R does not rule out the IR, but has doubt about the
NGOs and MNCs, much less the independence of
Nvard V. Manasian [email protected]
 Unlike Rs NRs emphasize the international structures and
explain the GG by the absence of global authority and the
power of states
Structural constraints over agent’s motivations
Security Dilemma , i. e. two or more states conflict even
though none wants it
Balance of power drives states to forge alliances with others
Anarchy (caused by international system) leads to
insecurity and war
IGOs roles are exaggerated and they are not apt to promote
Nvard V. Manasian [email protected]
 States have objective and material conditions
 State’s action is a function of utility, which explains its
engagement in any multilateral activity
 States don’t rely solely on their power
 States use the international system to advance their
national interests
 What RC theorists fail to understand is that state’s
action is not only a function of utility but of
INFORMATION, which is not always there…
Nvard V. Manasian [email protected]
 H is a hybrid of liberal, public goods and realist
Hegemonic states use their power in certain ways
HS believes that open market is a public good that
needs a strong state to be the guardian
It is the propagator and hence the driver behind the
free trade and democratic values as tenets of piece and
Examples of Great Britain and the US after WWII
Nvard V. Manasian [email protected]
 Fairly new concept that explains the role of norms
 It is a behaviouralist approach, in which all the players
of IR have certain beliefs, socially constructed rules
and cultural practices
C core is embedded with identity and interests that
form behaviors locally and globally
For Cs state interest is socially constructed
Sovereignty and its evolution redefines the identity
Examples of “poverty” agenda of the WB and
humanitarian rules of ICRC
Nvard V. Manasian [email protected]
 Resulting from an uneven economic development
Sought to maximize material
gain through power control
Sought to maximize the dependence
of ex-colonies on the surplus of
domestic goods
 GG is based on power, process of production and class
 For Ms the IGOs are dominated by a group of powerful
states that drive the agenda and have higher gains, WB
and IMF are seen as vices that perpetuate this
International System
Nvard V. Manasian [email protected]
 Unequal trade between developed and developing
 IGOs and MNCs based in developed nations help to
perpetuate this inequality
 1970s (mostly in Latin America and Africa) witnessed
un upsurge of import substitution, which collapsed in
1990s and asked for structural adjustments
 The inequalities of power and wealth should be
redistributed via new global order
Nvard V. Manasian [email protected]
the poor
and rich
states and
people has
fueled the
interest in
Peripheryunderdeveloped Cs
Semi peripheryNICs
Core-developed Cs
Nvard V. Manasian [email protected]
IGOs are but
tools to a
status quo of
So far the discourse and theory was more centered around the
states, but the organizations have their roles and influence as
well, which is being studied:
 Organizational Culture
-bureaucracies shaping state policy, IGOs
 Organizational Adaptation and Learning
- how the change occurs?
 Inter - organizational Relations
- how the cooperation evolves? Exp. WB from sole player to a partner
like institution
 Networks
- what are they, how they get formed? Universities as gate
Nvard V. Manasian [email protected]
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