European integration

ACADEMIC YEAR 2010 - 2011
International Integration
Ultimate expression of integration
The primary problem of international organization
is the achievement of a stable peace among
European Integration
European integration is the process of
political, legal, economic (and in some cases
social and cultural) integration of states
wholly or partially in Europe.
In the present day, European integration has
primarily come about through the EU and the
Council of Europe.
History of
European Integration
Pan-Europa Manifesto (1923)  the first to conceive of a union
of European nations was Richard Nikolaus.
League of Nations (1929)  Aristide Briand, who gave a speech in
favor of a European Union
and in 1930 who wrote his
"Memorandum on the Organization of a Regime of European
Federal Union" for the Government of France.
At the end of WWII, the continental political climate favoured
unity in Western Europe, seen by many as an escape from the
extreme forms of nationalism which had devastated the continent.
"The United States of Europe"
Council of Europe
The idea of European integration led to the creation of the Council
of Europe in Strasbourg in 1949.
The most important achievement of the Council of Europe
is the European Convention of Human Rights of 1950 with
its European Court of Human Rights in Strasbourg, which serves as
a de facto supreme court for human rights and fundamental
freedoms throughout Europe.
In accordance with its Statute of 1949, the Council of Europe works to
achieve greater unity among its members based on common values,
such as human rights and democracy.
Organization for Security and Co-operation
in Europe
Conference on Security and Co-operation in Europe (CSCE) in July
1973  is a trans-Atlantic intergovernmental organization
whose aim is to secure stability in Europe.
The OSCE develops 3 lines of activities, namely the:
(i) Politico-Military Dimension, mechanisms for conflict
prevention and resolution
(ii) Economic and Environmental Dimension, the
monitoring, alerting and assistance in case of economic and
environmental threats;
(iii) Human Dimension, full respect for human rights and
fundamental freedoms.
Regional Integration
 Baltic region
 Low Countries region
 British Isles
 Central Europe
 Nordic region
 European Free Trade Association
European Communities
 European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC)  in the
Treaty of Paris, which came into force on 23 July 1952. a few
Western European states agreed to confer powers over their
steel and coal production to the (ECSC)
 European Atomic Energy Community (or Euroatom) 
This transfer of national powers to a "Community" to be
exercised by its Commission was paralled under the 1957
Treaty of Rome.
 European Economic Community (EEC)  in 1967, the
Merger Treaty (or Brussels Treaty) combine the institutions
of the ECSC and Euratom into that of the EEC
Single European Act
 In 1987, the Single European Act (SEA) was the first
major revision of the Treaty of Rome that formally
established the single European market and the
European Political Cooperation.
 The Communities still had independent personalities
although were increasingly integrated, and over the
years were transformed into what is now called the
European Union
 The European Union (EU) is an association of 27
sovereign member states , that by treaty have
delegated certain of their competences to common
institutions, in order to coordinate their policies in a
number of areas, without however constituting a new
state on top of the member states.
 Officially established by the Treaty of Maastricht in
1993 upon the foundations of the pre-existing EEC.
European Union
 The institutions of the EU, its parliamentarians,
judges, commissioners and secretariat, the
governments of its member states as well as their
people, all play a role in European Integration.
 Nevertheless, the question of who plays the key role is
disputed as there are different theories on European
Integration focusing on different actors and agency.
Economic Integration
Free Trade Area (FTA)
Customs Union
Single Market
Euler Diagram
Social and Political Integration
Education (European Region Action Scheme for the Mobility
of University Students)
Charter of Fundamental Rights
Right to vote
Visa policy in EU
Schengen zone
European Commission
Staff of 24,000
HQ in Brussels, Belgium
Commission has 27
individual members – one
from each member state
Chosen for 4-year renewable
Lacks formal autonomous
power except for day-to-day
EU operations
Reports to, and implements
policies of, the Council of
Council of Ministers
Meeting of the relevant
ministers of each member
state – politicians who control
the bureaucrats
Reflects states’ resistance to
yielding sovereignty
Voting system is based on
each state’s population, but in
practice it operates by
consensus on major policy
Has a rotating presidency
(with limited power)
European Council (1970s)
European Parliament
Falls somewhat short of a true
legislature passing laws for all of
At present, it operates partly as a
watchdog over the Commission, but
with some power to legislate.
Must approve the Commission’s
budget but no item by item control.
Shares power with the Council
under a “co-decision procedure.”
Economic and Social Committee
European Court of Justice
Structure of the EU
Income Levels of EU Members
Future of European Integration
 There is no fixed end result of the process of
integration. Integration and enlargement pf the EU
are major issues in the politics of Europe, both at
European, national and local level.
 Integration may conflict with national sovereignty
and cultural identity by eurosceptics.
Euroscepticism or Euroskepticism
 Euroscepticism or Euroskepticism is a general term
used to describe criticism of the EU, and opposition to the
process of European Integration, existing throughout the
political spectrum.
 the main source of euroscepticism has been the notion that
integration weakens the nation state.
 eurosceptic include perceptions of the EU being
undemocratic or too bureaucratic.
Types of euroscepticism
 There are two different strains of Eurosceptic thought:
Hard euroscepticism is the opposition to membership of, or the
existence of, the European Union in its current form as a
matter of principle.
Soft euroscepticism is support for the existence of, and
membership of, a form of European Union, but opposition to
particular EU policies, and opposition to a federal Europe.
Harmsen, Robert; Spiering, Menno (2005). Euroscepticism: Party Politics, National Identity
and European Integration. Rodopi. ISBN 9789042019461.
Szczerbiak, Aleks; Taggart, Paul A. (2008). Opposing Europe?. Oxford: Oxford University
Press. ISBN 9780199258307.
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