Organizational Behavior
Today's Objectives
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Introduction
Introduction to subject
Importance in your degree
Importance in your organization, career and life
Moving around the subject
How we study this subject?
How we have to study this subject?
How we will go for the subject?
First topic
1
Organizational Behavior: First view
• Organizational
Behavior
– Interdisciplinary
field dedicated to
better
understanding and
managing people
at work
2
What is Management ?
“The planning, organizing, leading, and
controlling of human and other
resources to achieve organizational
goals effectively and efficiently”
“Management is a set of activities
directed
at
an
organization’s
resources with the aim of achieving
organizational goals in an efficient
and effective manner”
3
Management Activities / Functions
4
What is Management ?
Functions
Planning:
Process
of
identifying
and
appropriate organizational goals and courses of action
selecting
Organizing:
Task managers perform to create a structure of
working relationships that allow organizational members to interact and
cooperate to achieve organizational goals
Leading: Articulating a clear organizational vision for its members to
accomplish, and energize and enable employees so that everyone
understands the part they play in achieving organizational goals
Controlling:
Task of managers is to evaluate how well an
organization has achieved its goals and to take any corrective actions
needed to maintain or improve performance
5
What is Management ?
Resources
•Human
•Financial
•Physical
•Information
Efficient and Effective
•Efficient means using resources wisely and
without unnecessary waste.
•Effective means
successfully.
doing
the
right
things
6
What is Management ?
Organization
An organization is a collection of people working
together in a coordinated and structured fashion
to achieve one or more goals.
A consciously coordinated social unit, composed
of two or more people, that functions on a
relatively continuous basis to achieve a common
goal or set of goals
7
What is Management ?
Organization and people
•Organizations are strongly influenced by the
people that form part of them.
•Organizations can take in part of the personality
of the people within them and their attitudes,
perceptions and behaviors affect how an
organization will operate.
Organization’s Role in Society
•Organizations exist to allow accomplishment of
work that could not be achieved by people alone.
•As long as the goals of an organization are
appropriate, society will allow them to exist and
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they can contribute to society
What is Management ?
Levels of management
9
What is Management ?
Managerial skills
• Conceptual skills
– The ability to analyze and diagnose a
situation and distinguish between cause and
effect.
• Human skills
– The ability to understand, alter, lead, and
control the behavior of other individuals and
groups.
• Technical skills
– Job-specific skills required to perform a
particular type of work or occupation at a
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high level.
What is Management ?
Managerial Roles
• Management Roles: (Henry Mintzberg)
• Interpersonal Roles
– Figurehead, Leader ,Liaison
• Informational Roles
– Monitor, Disseminator, Spokesperson
• Decisional Roles
– Entrepreneur, Disturbance handler,
– Resource allocator, Negotiator
11
What is Management ?
Challenges faced by management
•New workplace as knowledge organizations
•Environmental changes
•Globalization
•Information technology (IT)
•Total Quality management (TQM)
•Workplace diversity
•Ethics
12
What is Management ?
Challenges faced by management
•New workplace as knowledge organizations
•Workplaces are called as knowledge organizations
due to following reasons:
- Organizations are influenced by environmental
changes
- People being the essential element of organization
respond to changes
- People have behaviors, therefore, better management
of behaviors lead to success of organization
- So better management of HR and their behavior lead
to better resource availability at workplace and makes
organization a knowledge organization and developing
knowledge organization is a challenge for management
13
What is Management ?
Challenges faced by management
•Environmental changes – Globalization
•Globalization means becoming borderless
•Becoming borderless in corporate environment
means borderless economy and borderless
operations
•Borderless economy demands from organizations to
gain global competitive advantage
•Global
competitive
advantage
require
an
organizational management to acquire the relevant
HR and manage their behavior in global environment
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which is a challenge for management
What is Management ?
Challenges faced by management
•Environmental changes – IT / information age
•1st generation of IT was based on data automation
•2nd generation of IT consists of an integrated system
and its transformation into decision support system
(DSS)
•Changes in IT and its growing use has changed the
requirements of HR, their needs and behavior.
•Management of HR behavoir in changing IT
environment is a challenge for management
15
What is Management ?
Challenges faced by management
•IT is challenging for three reasons:
•Applicable in all sectors
•Cost reduction tool
•Can change all operations
•IT has impact on work and job in following manner:
•Use of neural networks
•Use of internet
•Use of intranet
•Downsizing
•Flat organization
•Less bureaucracy
16
What is Management ?
Challenges faced by management
•Environmental changes – Quality
•Quality is the totality of features and characteristics
of a product or service that bears its ability to satisfy
stated or implied need
•Current day world is influenced by term quality
service revolution
•Quality is the cost of entering in world market place
•Therefore, quality has direct impact on success of
organization
•wholistic impact of quality gave birth to total quality
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management (TQM)
What is Management ?
Challenges faced by management
•Environmental changes – Quality
•Quality is delivered by relevant and experienced HR
•Acquiring HR and managing its behavior that can
deliver the quality to internal and external customers
is a challenge for management
18
What is Management ?
Challenges faced by management
•Total quality management require all internal and
external stakeholders to deliver quality in all functions
•TQM has three trends:
•It is difficult to implement
•Components of TQM are hard to classify
•There are rapid changes in the area
19
What is Management ?
Challenges faced by management
•Following are the major tools in TQM:
•Reengineering: redesign of business processes to
make improvements in cost, quality, speed service
•Benchmarking: process of comparing work and service
methods against the best practices and outcomes for
purpose of identifying changes that will result in higher
quality
•Empowerment: process of recognizing and releasing
power among the people. Following are the requirements
to make empowerment effective:
•Participation
•Innovation
•access to information
•accountability
20
What is Management ?
Challenges faced by management
•Environmental changes – Workforce Diversity
•Diversity means the state of being diverse; variety
•Diversity may lead to discrimination based on
following:
•Age
•Sex
•Race
•Ethnicity
•Religion
•Disability etc.
•Challenge for management IS to remove all forms of
discriminations and create equal opportunities
21
What is Management ?
Challenges faced by management
•Environmental changes – Ethics
• Ethics consist of a set of moral principles, esp. ones
relating to or affirming a specified group, field, or form
of conduct.
•Emerging workplace ethics related problem are :
•Sexual harassment
•Ceiling effect
•Work- family relationship
•Challenge for management is to maintain workplace
ethics
22
What is Management ?
Challenges faced by management
•Solution to challenges: New perspective of
management
• Solution to new challenges faced by management lies
in making emphasis on Human skills also called
Behavioral approach:
– The ability to understand, alter, lead, and control
the behavior of other individuals and groups.
•Traditional view of management also called as human
relations approach used money and incentives as tool to
resolve problems
•Contemporary view of management also called as
behavioral management require to study human
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behaviors for effective management of human resource
What is Management ?
Approaches to Management
•Process approach
•Quantitative approach
•System approach
•Contingency approach
•Human relation approach
•Behavioral approach
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What is Management ?
Approaches to Management
Behavioural approach to management
•Traditional approach – Human relations
•Economic security
•Working conditions
•Monetary rewards
•Contemporary
approach
Behavioral
approach
•Researching human behaviours
•Managing people in light of behaviours
•Increasing emphasis on use of human skills
in addition to conceptual and technical skills25
What is Management ?
Approaches to Management
Behavioural approach to management
•Attempts to provide specific necessary background
skills needed to make managers of today and
tomorrow as effective with the conceptual and
humans dimension of management as they been in
past with technical or functional dimensions
•Emphasis is on developing the ability to understand,
alter, lead, and control the behavior of other individuals
and groups.
26
What is organizational behavior ?
Study of human behavior in organization setting
Organizational behaviour attempts to provide
background and skills to deal with human dimension
of management
Understanding, prediction and management of
human behaviour in organization setting (Luthans)
“The study of individual behavior and group
dynamics in organizations” (Luthans)
27
What is organizational behavior ?
Organizational behaviour is the systematic study of
the actions and attitudes that people exhibits within
organizations (Robbins)
Organizational behaviour is a field of study that
investigates how individuals, groups and structure
affect and are affected by behavior within
organizations, for the purpose of applying such
knowledge toward improving an organization’s
effectiveness (Robbins)
28
What is organizational behavior ?
Relationship with other disciplines
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What is organizational behavior ?
Theoretical frameworks and organizational behavior model
Cognitive framework
•Cognition is act of knowing information
•Cognition is based on:
•Inputs (information)
•Output (behavior)
•Cognition process consists of :
•Thinking
•Perception
•Problem solving
•Information processing
30
What is organizational behavior ?
Theoretical frameworks and organizational behavior model
Cognitive framework
•Cognition is a logical thinking that creates
“expectancy” that a particular event will lead to a
particular consequence
•Based on expectancy an individual behaves in a
certain manner on happening of certain event
•Therefore behavior is explained through cognition
and this makes cognitive framework the part of
organizational behavior e.g. how managers makes
decision and behave
31
What is organizational behavior ?
Theoretical frameworks and organizational behavior model
Behaviouristic framework
•Behaviouristic approach is environmental based
and take input from environment
•The approach is based on observation
•Stimulus response phenomena i.e. a stimulus
generates a response is the basics of this approach
also called as classical school
32
What is organizational behavior ?
Theoretical frameworks and organizational behavior model
Behaviouristic framework
•Skinner (father of operant conditioning school)
explained that stimulus response helps to explain the
physical reflexes but there exits operant conditioning
•Operant conditioning stands that consequences of
response infect explains the most behaviors as
compared to stimuli. It means expected results of
some input directs an individual to behave in certain
way instead of expected reaction in response to an
action
•Therefore is behavior is function of its consequences 33
What is organizational behavior ?
Theoretical frameworks and organizational behavior model
Social learning framework
•Social learning approach is a behavioral approach but
combination of cognitive and Behavioural framework.
•According to Bandura, behavior can be best explained
in terms of continues reciprocal interaction among
cognitive, behavioral and environmental determinants
•According to Bandura, personality is shaped by an
interaction among cognitive factors, behaviors and
environmental factors. This interaction is termed
reciprocal determinism.
34
What is organizational behavior ?
Theoretical frameworks and organizational behavior model
Social learning framework
•Under social learning approach individuals
•Learn about their environment
•Alter and construct their environment to make
reinforces available
•Note the importance of rule and symbolic process
in learning
Organizational participants
Cognition guide
organizational behaviour
Organizational
behaviour
Participants control their
behaviour using cognition
and manage environmental
signals
complex behavior is
acquired from environment
Organizational
environment
35
What is organizational behavior ?
Theoretical frameworks and organizational behavior model
Social learning framework – Organizational
behaviour model
•Cognitive approach – understanding the human
behavior
•Behavioural approach – predicting and managing human
behavior
•Cognitive approach – internal factors
•Behavioral approach – external factor
36
What is organizational behavior ?
Contemporary organizational behavior
An interdisciplinary focus – relations with other field
37
What is organizational behavior ?
Contemporary organizational behavior
An interdisciplinary focus – relations with other field
38
What is organizational behavior ?
Contemporary organizational behavior
An interdisciplinary focus – relations with other field
39
What is organizational behavior ?
Contemporary organizational behavior
An interdisciplinary focus – relations with other field
40
What is organizational behavior ?
Contemporary organizational behavior
An interdisciplinary focus – relations with other field
41
What is organizational behavior ?
Contemporary organizational behavior
Descriptive nature
•Organizational behaviour has main emphasis on
describing the problems associated with behaviour
rather than prescribing
•The reason for this phenomena are:
•Immaturity of the field as the filed of is still in
process of development
•Complexity of behaviours
•Lack of valid information for research
42
What is organizational behavior ?
Importance for managers
•Help managers to define the complex human
behaviour and problems associated with it
•Help managers to understand, predict and manager
human behaviour for effective management of
organizations
•Help the mangers to classify:
•People as organizations
•People as resource
•People as people
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Next time
•Overview of various approaches to management with specific
emphasis on behavioural approach
•OB frameworks
•Completion of first bullet of course
•Activity
•Paper discussion
Your assignment -Write a note on following
•Behaviour
•Attitude
•Personality
•Quality
•Diversity
•Perception
•Emotions
•Cognition
•Values
•Culture
44
Questions ?
45
Thank You
46
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