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• An Organization is a consciously co-ordinated social
unit, composed of two or more people that functions on a
relatively continuous basis to achieve a common goal of
the organization as well as individuals.
• Behaviour is anything a person does.
• Since our earlier years we have watched the actions of
others & attempt to interpret what we see.
• We watch what others do & try to explain why they have
engaged in their behaviour. In addition we attempt to
predict what they might do under different sets of
• In early part of 20 th. Century it was thought that in the
working place workers were only interested for monetary
gain .The workers were also thought of lazy type. The
productivity was believed to be controlled by making
financial benefit of the workers.
• However, due to decline of productivity and profitability in
some giant industries in the west it was thought that for
maintaining discipline and welfare of the workers the
post of Labour officer and Welfare Officer was introduced
under Personnel Management department.
• Labour
administration, Industrial disputes, Disciplinary actions,
Formulation and Calculation of overtimes and incentives.
• Welfare Officers are responsible for Statutory and Nonstatutory welfare, Leave record, Leave encashment etc.
• After some period it has been noticed that the above
factors are basically static and routine job. The
Psychologist and Human Managers on research found
the following points for not getting uniform output
from the workers in industriesHuman is a complex mixture of Social, Economical,
Political, Physiological, and Psychological product.
He only comes to working place for earnings to survive
himself and his family. There is something, more,
which is necessary to be achieved and nurtured with
respect to best kind of output from a human in work
• Thus, the idea of :
i)Man is a complex psychological product.
ii)They have needs and shifting of need is always playing.
iii) Organization should think for participating situation.They
should have some honors apart from wages in industry.
have emerged.
• The above ideas further nurtured that in an organization there are
four inputs LAND, MACHINE, CAPITAL and HUMAN. Among
these resources the first three can be best utilized by using the
human resource.
• Behaviour generally predictable & the systematic study of behaviour
is a means to making reasonably accurate prediction
• Systematic study means – looking at relationships, attempting to
attribute causes & effects and basing our conclusions on scientific
evidence i.e. on data gathered under controlled conditions and
measured and interpreted in a reasonably rigorous manner.
• Systematic analysis will enhance our effectiveness in accurately
planning & predicting behaviour
• Management has 3 major dimensions—technical, conceptual and
human. The technical dimension consists of manager’s expertise or
functional expertise in his area of specialization viz. Accounting,
Engineering or marketing. The managers are well equipped to deal
with this area of specialization for which he has sufficient knowledge
and experience.
• There is more needs for understanding conceptual and human
dimensions of modern management. This is where the field of
organizational behavior comes into the picture. Organizational
Behavior is directly related with the conceptual and human side of
• Man management concept in the past was that employees are lazy
and are interested in money out of his job. Therefore in order to
make them productive, management used to devise monitory
incentive, ensure job security, provide good working conditions so
that morale would be high and productivity would be improved and
maintained. However, this approach of monitory incentive to extract
productivity has changed.
• The new perspective of man-management assumes that employees
are extremely complex. Traditional human relation’s approach no
longer has dominant role in the behavioural approach to
management. There is a need for theoretical understanding backed
by rigorous empirical research before application can be made for
managing people effectively.
• It is therefore obvious that people are the key factors in today’s
challenges of downsizing, re-engineering, IT explosion, global
competition, TQM etc. In all these activities, there is paradigm shift
in the approach of man management, which is the key activity in any
• A systematic approach to the study of behaviour can improve our
explanatory & predictive ability.
MANAGEMENT of human behavior in an organization.
•All managers, regardless of their technical function,
are human resource manager’s i.e. they deal with
human behavior in the organization. Therefore all
managers need to have an understanding and
perspective of organizational behavior
•OB represents the behavioural approach to
management. Other approaches to management
include process, quantitative, system and contingency
approaches. OB does not portray total management.
• OB attempts to provide specific, necessary
background and skills to make the managers of today
and tomorrow as effective with the conceptual and
human dimensions of management as they have been
in the past with technical and functional dimensions.
• Field of OB
• Contributing disciplines.
HR Movements.
Hawthorne studies.
S-O-B-C Models for OB.
• Organization Behavior is the studies of
Human behavior towards the organization i.e.
1.How an individual’s behavior affects an organization.
2. Application of an individual in development of the organization by
applying his intelligence
• Personality of human – We have to study how personality develops
in an individual.
• However the main areas contributing in OB are :
• Personality system – Properties and traits of the individual, for
example perception, attitude, motives, feelings & process or as a
whole the individuals psychology.
• Social system – Analysis of social structures and positions in those
structures, for example the relationship between the behaviour of
leaders and followers.
• Cultural system – Beliefs, customs, ideas and values within a
society which affect the emphasis individuals place on certain
activities, for example the importance to Muslim women of wearing
trousers to work.
• Behavioral Science will cover
• OB
--- Both theory and application
--- Organizational theory
--- Personnel Management, 100 application
--- Human Resource Management
• Framework of OB
• Organizational Behavior relates the various theoretical frameworks
that serve as a foundation for a model of organizational behavior.
• 1.Cognitive Framework The cognitive approach to human behavior
has many sources of inputs. This approach emphasizes the positive
and free will aspect of human behavior and uses concepts like
expectancy, demand and incentive. COGNITION, which is the basic
unit of cognitive framework, is an act of knowing an item of
information. Cognition proceeds behavior and considers the
person’s thinking, perception, problem solving and information
processing. As per this theory every behavior is directed towards a
particular goal. An animal becomes restless when it is hungry. The
restlessness continues till its hunger is met. Cognitive approach is
• 2.Behavioristic Framework This is based on the work of Pavlov and
Watson. As per this theory, every human behavior is based on
stimulus-response explanation. A stimulus generates a response
i.e. behavior.
• 3. Social learning Framework This
approach suggests that people are self
aware and engaging purposeful behavior.
People learn about the environment to
make reinforces available and the
importance of rules and symbolic process
in learning.