16. Managing Ineffective Performers.

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Managing Ineffective
Performers
Employee Factors Contributing to
Ineffective Performance
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Insufficient mental ability and education
Insufficient job knowledge
Job stress and burnout
Low motivation and loafing
Excessive absenteeism and tardiness
Emotional problems or personality disorder
Alcoholism and drug addiction
Employee Factors Contributing to Ineffective
Performance, continued
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Tobacco addiction or withdrawal symptoms
Conducting outside business on the job
Family and personal problems
Physical limitations
Preoccupying office romance
Fear of traveling, especially flying
Poor organizational citizenship behavior
Job Factors Contributing to Ineffective
Performance
 Ergonomics problems and repetitive motion disorder
 Repetitive, physically demanding job
 Built-in conflict (e.g., repo specialist)
 Night-shift work assignment
 Substandard industrial hygiene
 “Sick” building (has airborne pollutants)
Managerial Factors Contributing to
Ineffective Performance
 Inadequate communication about job responsibilities
 Inadequate feedback about performance
 Inappropriate leadership style
 Negative and untrusting attitude
 Bullying or intimidating behavior by manager
Organizational Factors Contributing to
Ineffective Performance
 Organizational culture that tolerates poor
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performance
Poor ethical climate
Counterproductive work environment
Negative work group influences
Intentional threats to job security
Violence or threats of violence
Organizational Factors Contributing to Poor
Performance, continued
 Sexual harassment
 Workplace harassment in general (such as based on
race or sexual orientation)
 Reward structure that encourages deviant behavior
(such as heavy commission pay)
Note: Poor performance might be based on
combination of factors related to employee, job,
manager, and organization.
Control Model for Managing Ineffective
Performers
Detect Deviation
From
Acceptable
Performance
Define and
Assess the
Cause
Select and
Implement
Action Plan
Set
Improvement
Goals
Communicate
With
Substandard
Performer
Re-evaluate
After Time
Interval
Continue or
Discontinue
Action Plan
Define
Performance
Standards
Control Model for Managing Ineffective
Performers, continued
 Define performance standards (specify what is
expected of employees).
 Detect deviation from acceptable performance (use
control measures including direct observation of
performance).
 Define and assess the cause (could be factor within
person, job, company, or the manager).
Control Model for Managing Ineffective
Performers, continued
 Communicate with substandard performer
(discussion or confrontation about unacceptable
performance or behavior; show care and concern).
 Set improvement goals (attaining goal will correct
performance deviation).
 Select and implement action plan (vital part of
remedying poor performance).
Control Model for Managing Ineffective
Performance, continued
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a.
b.
Select and implement an action plan (continued)
Types of action plans (hundreds are possible, with
some requiring an organizational program
including the employee assistance program)
Implementation of the action plan (use steps 5-7
of control model in slide 8)
Control Model for Managing Ineffective
Performance, concluded
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a.
b.
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Re-evaluate performance after time interval (when
control model works, employee performance will
improve).
Formal and informal reviews (could be sit-down
review of quick checkup)
Positive reinforcement and punishment (depending
on progress)
Continue or discontinue the action plan for
improvement (stay alert for future problems)
Coaching and Constructive Criticism
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1.
2.
3.
4.
Coaching involves constructive criticism. Keep in
mind the following suggestions:
Focus feedback on employee work and behavior
rather than his or her attitudes and personality.
Be timely with negative feedback.
Listen actively and empathize.
Ask good questions (the simpler the better).
Coaching and constructive criticism,
continued
Engage in joint problem solving.
Offer constructive advice.
Give the poor performer an opportunity to observe
and model someone who exhibits acceptable
performance.
8. Obtain a commitment to change.
9. Conduct some coaching sessions outside of the
performance evaluation.
10. Applaud good results.
5.
6.
7.
Progressive Discipline
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1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
The step-by-step application of corrective
discipline, as follows:
Confrontation, discussion, counseling
Oral warning
Written warning
Suspension or disciplinary layoff
Discharge
Rules for Applying Discipline
1.
2.
3.
4.
All employees should be notified of what
punishments will be applied for what infractions.
Discipline should be applied immediately after
infraction is committed.
The punishment should fit the undesirable
behavior.
Managers should be consistent in their application
of discipline for each infraction.
Rules for Applying Discipline, continued
5.
6.
7.
8.
Disciplinary remedies should be applied
impersonally to offenders.
Manager must document performance or behavior
that led to punishment.
Focus attention on the unsatisfactory behavior or
performance, not attitudes or traits.
When discipline is over, return to usual work
relations.
Positive Consequences of Punishment
 Employees who believe in just world likely to accept
punishment when they violate rules or perform
poorly.
 When employees observe that another employee has
been punished justly, they will rally on side of
management.
 Punishment informs employees that certain types of
conduct will not be tolerated.
Four Types of Difficult People
 Disgruntled workers are angry and see themselves
as victims.
 Passive-aggressive workers often express anger by
neglecting to take action.
 Uncivil workers are very rude.
 Change resistors tend to live in past and have
difficulty learning new procedures and adjusting to
new initiatives.
Tactics for Dealing with Difficult People
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1.
2.
3.
Combination of tactics usually required to deal
with difficult person.
The more ingrained the behavior, the more difficult
to change.
Give feedback and stay focused on issues at hand.
Use tact and diplomacy.
Use humor (but avoid sarcasm).
Tactics for Dealing with Difficult People,
continued
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
Give recognition and attention.
Listen and then confront or respond.
Stand fast and do not make unwarranted
concessions.
Boost the difficult worker’s self-confidence.
If difficult person is your boss, defend yourself
without a defensive tone.
Dealing with Cynical Behavior
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a.
b.
c.
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Cynicism is negative attitude toward employer,
comprising three dimensions:
A belief that organization lacks integrity
Negative affect toward the organization
Tendencies toward disparaging and critical
behavior
Ignoring cynical comments might work.
Demand evidence to support harsh comments.
Termination
 Employees must be fired for good cause (legally
justifiable or good business reason).
 Documentation helps avoid wrongful discharge.
 According to due process, employees must be given
a fair hearing before being dismissed.
 Manager should deal with feelings of coworkers after
employee is terminated.
Minimizing Major Errors in Firing
1.
2.
3.
4.
Never fire an employee when angry.
Never fire an employee based on second-party
information.
Be direct and clear in your language.
Avoid surprises. (For example, poor performance
reviews can take the surprise element out of being
terminated.)
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