Modeling the Way Employees operate under growing conditions of uncertainty and stress …as such it is critical that leaders step in to ‘model the way’ Values are a critical aspect of leaders’ ability to model the way As a first step, leaders need to determine what is important to them and what their own values are…the path that they wish to take A critical aspect of this is discovering what they care about, finding their voice Knowing your “inner territory,” what you value, makes you a stronger leader because it allows you to act with integrity as your values guide your actions When a leader’s actions are guided by values s/he is able to achieve authenticity as a leader When leaders have clarity on their personal values they experience and demonstrate a greater sense of commitment to value-aligned action and those with whom they work An equally important step is to create a sense of shared values among employees Values need to be forged, not forced Effective leaders do not impose their values on employees, they find a way to integrate their personal values with those of their employees to forge a common value system Leaders need to model the shared values…. Leaders illustrate what the values ‘look like’ in the organizational context Leaders model values by: How they spend their time The language they use The types of questions they ask The types of feedback they seek Leaders teach values by: Confronting critical incidents Telling stories that exemplify values Visibly demonstrating valueconsistent behavior Storytelling is one of the most effective tools at a leaders disposal… Why? Storytelling is one of the most effective tools at a leaders disposal… Why? Stories are easy to remember People relate to stories Stories demonstrate values in a way that is meaningful People learn more effectively through stories What questions should you be asking if you want people to focus on …… • Continuous Improvement • Quality • Innovation • Integrity • Teamwork • Collaboration • Personal Responsibility • Customer /Client Satisfaction • Trust • Growth • Communication Authentic Leadership Authentic Leadership Description • Authentic Leadership – focuses on whether leadership is genuine • Interest in Authentic Leadership – Increasing in recent times due to social upheavals – People longing for trustworthy leaders – Identified earlier in transformational leadership research but not studied separately – Needed evidence-based research of construct Definition of Authentic Leadership “A pattern that draws upon and promotes both positive psychological capacities and a positive ethical climate, to foster greater selfawareness, an internalized moral perspective, balanced processing of information, and relational transparency on the part of leaders working with followers, fostering positive self-development.” Walumbwa, Avolio, Gardner, Wernsing & Peterson, 2008 Basic Model of Authentic Leadership • FOUR COMPONENTS: – Self-awareness • Reflecting on one’s core values, identity, emotions, motives • Being aware of and trusting your own feelings – Internalized moral perspective • Self-regulatory process using internal moral standards to guide behavior – Balanced processing • Ability to analyze informational objectively and explore other people’s opinions before making a decision - Relational transparency • Being open and honest in presenting one’s true self to others Practical Approaches to Authentic Leadership • Bill George (2003, 2007) – Leader characteristic model – Leaders have genuine desire to serve others – Five characteristics of Authentic Leaders • Understand their purpose • Strong values • Trusting relationships • Self-discipline • Act from the heart (mission) Practical Approaches to Authentic Leadership • Robert Terry (1993) – Action-centered model – Leaders should strive to do what is right – Two core leadership questions: • What is really, really going on? • What are we going to do about it? – Developed Authentic Action Wheel to help leaders frame problems • Locate the problem on the diagnostic wheel • Strategically select an appropriate response to the problem Strengths • Fulfills society’s expressed need for trustworthy leadership. Fills a void in an uncertain world. • Provides broad guidelines for those who want to become authentic leaders. Both practical and theoretical approaches provide a map. • Like transformational and servant leadership, AL has an explicit moral dimension. • Unlike traits that only some people exhibit, everyone can learn to be more authentic. • Can be measured using an established instrument (ALQ). Criticisms • The theory is still in the formative stages, so some concepts in the practical approaches are not fully developed or substantiated. • The moral component of AL is not fully explained. It’s unclear how higher values such as justice inform authentic leadership. • The rationale for including positive psychological capacities as a part of AL has not been clearly explained by researchers. • The link between authentic leadership and positive organizational outcomes is unclear. It is also not clear whether AL is sufficient to achieve organizational goals. Application • People have the capacity to become authentic leaders. It is a lifelong learning process. • Human Resource departments may be able to foster authentic leadership behaviors in employees who move into leadership positions. • Leaders are always trying to do the “right” thing, to be honest with themselves and others, and to work for the common good. • Leaders are shaped by critical life events that lead to growth and greater authenticity. Reflection Question • What similarities do you see between Kouzes’ and Posner’s Exemplary Leadership Model and Authentic Leadership? • What differences do you see between these two models? • If you had to choose one as the basis for your leadership development, which would you choose? Why?