Ansökan om stöd

advertisement
ANSÖKAN OM
FORSKNINGSSTÖD
Datum
1 (6)
Dnr
Projektnr
Sökande
Företag/organisation
Organisationsnummer
KTH, Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan
202100-3054
Institution/avdelning
Postgiro/Bankgiro/Bankkonto
Energiteknik, Avd. Tillämpad Termodynamik och Kylteknik
PG:1 56 53-9, BG: 895-9223
Postadress
Brinellvägen 68
Postnummer
Ort
Länskod
Kommunkod
Land
10044
Stockholm
01
80
Sverige
Projektledare (förnamn, efternamn)
Prof. Björn Palm
Telefon
Fax
087907453
08 20 41 61
E-postadress
Webbplats
bpalm@energy.kth.se
www.energy.kth.se
Eventuell medsökande (ange organisation)
Oxana Samoteeva, KTH/Energiteknik
Rahmat Khodabandeh, KTH/Energiteknik
Projektet
Ansökan avser nytt projekt
Fortsättning på tidigare projekt, ange projektnummer:
Projekttitel (på svenska)
Studie av värmeöverföring, tryckfall och flödesvisualisering vid förångning i små rektangulära kanaler.
Projekttitel (på engelska)
Study on heat transfer, pressure drop and flow behaviour visualization during evaporation in small channels of a rectangular
shape
Sammanfattning (på svenska). Sammanfattningen skall omfatta max 250 ord och skall skrivas både på svenska och på engelska. Sammanfattningen skall skrivas
så att den i ämnet oinvigde med lätthet förstår projektets innehåll och syfte.
STEM038 ver.N-1.1, 2005-09-14
Kravet på minskning av mängden köldmedium i värmepumpar och kylanläggningar är numera en växande trend. Detta krav
är motiverat av flera fördelar bland vilka kan nämnas: minskade utsläpp av köldmedium och därmed minskad påverkan av
köldmediet på miljön och omgivningen, minskade kostnader för råmaterialet för tillverkning av en mindre värmeväxlare med
samma eller ännu högre effektivitet, minskad utrymme som krävs för systemet, minskade underhållskostnader etc. För att
utforma ett system för lägre köldmediemängder bör värmeväxlare med små rördiametrar övervägas. Sådana värmeväxlare har
studerats i ett antal forskningsprojekt men kommersiellt finns bara vissa typer av växlare tillgängliga. Ett av de särskilda
målen för det föreslagna projektet är att undersöka de tvåfasflödesegenskaperna av köldmedium vid förångning i rektangulära
kanaler med olika sidoförhållanden. Den hydrauliska diametern av kanalerna är i storleksordningen av 200 - 1500 µm. Det
experimentella arbetet kommer att genomföras med en singel- kanal värmeväxlare tillverkade av IR-genomskinligt glas och
syftet är att med IR-kamera studera värmeöverföring i dessa kanaler. Jämförelser med resultat från tidigare studier inom
området kommer att bidra till att fastställa vilka korrelationer som kan användas för denna typ av kanaler. Visualisering med
en hög hastighet IR-kamera kommer att ge temperaturfördelningen kring bubblorna i flödet och därmed påverkan av den
rektangulära kanalformen på värmeöverföringen. Vi tror att resultaten kommer att vara världsunika vad gäller detaljerade
studier av värmeöverföringen kring bubblor vid flödande förångning. Efter projektets slut kan de insamlade uppgifterna
användas för det fortsatta arbetet med att utveckla värmeväxlare tillverkade av rektangulära små kanaler och för användningn
i framtida värmepump- och kylsystem.
Sekretariatet EFFSYS+
Institutionen för Energiteknik
Avdelningen Tillämpad termodynamik och kylteknik
Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan
100 44 Stockholm
Besöksadress Brinellvägen 68
Telefax 08-204161
E-post Effsysplus@energy.kth.se
Datum
2 (6)
Sammanfattning på engelska enligt ovan (max 250 ord).
The demand for reduction of the amount of refrigerant charge in the heat pump and refrigeration application is nowadays a
growing trend. This demand is motivated by several benefits among which are: the reduced impact of the refrigerant on the
environment and surroundings; reduced cost of the primary material for manufacturing of a smaller heat exchanger with the
same or even higher efficiency; reduced space necessary for the system installation; reduced run and maintenance costs etc. In
order to design a system for lower charges smaller internal volume heat exchangers with reduced tube diameters should be
considered. Such heat exchangers have been studied in a few research projects but are not yet generally in commercial use.
One of the specific objectives of the proposed project is to investigate the two-phase flow characteristics of the refrigerant
evaporating in small rectangular channels with different aspect ratios. The hydraulic diameters of the channels are of the order
of 200 – 1500 µm. The experiments will be carried out for single-channel heat exchangers made of IR-transparent glass and
the scope is to collect precise data for heat transfer in these channels. The comparison to previous studies in the field will help
determining the best predicting correlation for this type of channels and place the collected data in the world-wide database to
facilitate studying this still not fully covered topic. Visualization with the high-speed IR camera will also provide temperature
distribution data around the moving bubbles, important for understanding the evaporation process. We believe this
information will be quite unique worldwide. After the completion of the project the collected data can be used for further
work on developing heat exchangers manufactured from rectangular small channels for implementation in heat pump and
refrigeration systems.
Enskilt projekt
Forskningsprogram, ange vilket: EFFSYS+
Datum för projektstart
Tidpunkt då projektet beräknas vara genomfört
2011-07-01
2013-07-01
Totalt sökt belopp
1000000 SEK
Datum
3 (6)
Motivering; Energi-/miljö-/näringslivsrelevans, max 250 ord. Ange koppling till resultat från tidigare genomfört program eller projekt.
Minimization of the technology and equipment is a trend that nowadays is dominating many research areas. The interest in
reducing the size of heat exchangers without diminishing their heat transfer characteristics has aroused based on several needs
of our times. One important need that led to the intensification of the research in this area is our concern with the state of the
environment. Another input into the reduction of the size of the heat exchangers has come from the increasing demand from
different industries, where the size, weight and volume became of growing importance. This refers to the electronic industry,
where cooling of electronics has reached the need for introducing liquid cooling equipment for removing high heat fluxes
from concise areas. Automotive industry nowadays demands efficient light-weighted and compact designs of heat exchangers.
Possible future applications of the compact heat exchangers working on fluids with or without change of phase are rising from
nearly all industries and technologies and especially in the heat pump and refrigeration applications.
A study on the charge reduction in the domestic heat pump system running on propane has been run resulting in a PhD thesis
(Primal Fernando, KTH/Energiteknik). This study showed that most of the refrigerant is collected in the heat exchangers and
therefore a special attention should be paid to minimization of the internal volume of these without reducing their heat
transfer characteristics. Some copper and aluminum small channel compact heat exchangers were tested in that system and the
results confirmed that it is possible to drastically reduce the amount of refrigerant in the system while maintaining same
heating effect by using more compact heat exchangers. The need has risen then for a deeper study of the heat transfer and
pressure drop in these rectangular channels and how well these can be predicted by the correlations proposed by other authors
working in this field. A parallel study focusing on the abovementioned issues has been started several years ago and copper
rectangular channels were chosen for investigation.
The experimental test facility was built in order to investigate heat transfer and pressure drop in small rectangular copper
channels in two-phase flow. Refrigerant R134a was chosen as a relevant test fluid with good characteristics as it is presently
widely used.
The experimental data was collected for mass fluxes varying from 200 to 970 kg/m2s and a heat flux range of 0,6-28 kW/m2.
The results of the heat transfer investigation have shown that the heat transfer coefficient is not influenced by the mass flux or
vapor quality but only by heat flux, thus indicating the dominance of nucleate boiling or a related heat transfer mechanism. In
comparison to several conventional correlations from the literature, it was shown that the correlations by Lazarek and Black,
1982 predict the heat transfer coefficient best. Measurements have shown that the pressure drop increases approximately
linearly with the mass flux thus also confirming the data collected by other researchers in the field.
The need has risen to continue this study and do the tests for same shapes but also visualize the flow. This would be necessary
for extending the data and actually see which flow regimes are dominating and therefore be able to more precisely define the
type of heat transfer, the influence of the position of the channel (placed vertically); whether the liquid is collected in the
corners and how it influences the heat transfer and pressure drop.
Based on this it will be possible to draw some final conclusions on the dominating type of heat transfer, influence of the shape
and orientation on the pressure drop and be able to use these for future work on manufacturing the heat exchangers composed
by rectangular small channels
Bakgrund; vad har gjorts tidigare?, vad är nytt i detta projekt?, forskargruppens verksamhet?, samarbeten? etc, max 1 A4-sida
The above-mentioned study on the rectangular channels is run by Oxana Samoteeva, PhD student at the Department of
Energy Technology, Division of Applied Thermodynamics and Refrigeration. Full-time dedication on the remaining part of
the whole research is necessary and if opportunity given, the work would lead to a final report and a PhD grade within 2 years
from the start of the project.
The research is lead by Professor Björn Palm, head of the Division of Applied Thermodynamics and Refrigeration at The
Royal Institute of Technology (KTH). Professor Palm has a large and proven experience of the research subject. Three
students who worked under his supervision on similar topics have obtained their PhD degrees recently.
Datum
4 (6)
Mål; Ange enkla, tydliga och mätbara mål i exempelvis kWh, max 250 ord.
This study aims at proving that the use of small channel heat exchangers in heat pumps and refrigeration equipment can not
only minimize the amount of the refrigerant in the system while maintaining the same efficiency of the heat transfer process
but also to improve it by achieving higher heat transfer coefficients. This gain is believed to be possible without increase in
pressure drop due to the reduction in channel size by use of several parallel channels. It is known from previous studies that
the heat transfer coefficients are increasing with reducing the channel diameters. However, previous studies have not revealed
the influence of the aspect ratio of rectangular channels. The experimental data are wide and very dependent on the applied
conditions but general trend is that decrease in diameter (at least in the range of the application of our interest) is positively
influencing the heat transfer coefficient thus making it possible to manufacture more compact heat exchangers for replacing
the conventional ones. The positive effect in SEK or energy saving is not possible to calculate at this stage but the results of
this study should be used as a base for further manufacturing and test of a heat exchanger that after testing will give a
possibility to put the results of the present research into the real values and numbers.
Genomförande, max 250 ord.
The work will be carried on at the Department of Energy Technology in the laboratory of the Division of Applied
Thermodynamics and Refrigeration. The test rig that was used for previous experimental work on copper single-channel heat
exchangers is to be rebuilt for use with new heat exchanger channels made of IR-transparent glass plates. The experiments
will be done for at least three hydraulic diameters of the channels and a wide range of heat and mass fluxes. The collected
data is then analysed and used for further calculation and conclusions. The results of calculations will be plotted against the
data calculated using the correlations available in the literature. Visualisation will be carried out at the time of data collection
in order to complete the picture and to analyse the visual results together with the results of calculations. The aim is to get
detailed information about the local heat transfer around the flowing bubbles as they sweep past the heated surface.
An update of available literature will be carried out prior to the start of the experimental part of the project. The results of the
study will be summarized in at least two journal and two conference papers. The final thesis will be written and presented for
a PhD degree at the end of the project.
The estimated time necessary for the successful implementation of the project is two years. The work within this time frame
will be distributed as follows:
Start of the project – July 2011
Update on the literature survey resulting in a short report – until September 2011
Test-rig rebuilt by November 2011
Experiments carried on – by December 2012
Work on the papers and thesis and final PhD presentation – by June 2013
Two conference papers will be written and presented within the 12 month of the experimental work
Two journal papers will be written during the period June 2012 – July 2013
Datum
5 (6)
Kostnader
Projektets totala
kostnad
KALENDERÅR
Lönekostnader
Laboratoriekostnad
Datorkostnad
Utrustning
1800000
40000
0
300000
Projektets totala kostnader per år
2011
450000
20000
2012
900000
20000
2013
450000
75000
150000
75000
20000
20000
160000
1100000
80000
550000
% av heltid
50
Material
40000
0
Ev förvaltningskostnader
320000
SUMMA
2500000
Finansiering inkl. samfinansiärer
Resor
Övriga kostnader
80000
850000
Andel i kronor och procent av projektets totala kostnader/år
FINANSIÄR
Effsys +
Alfa Laval
Electrolux
Ericsson
Huawei
Sapa
SUMMA
Detta projekt är
År 2011
År 2012
År 2013
År
År
Total
(%)
250000
75000
75000
75000
75000
75000
500000
150000
150000
150000
150000
150000
250000
75000
75000
75000
75000
75000
1000000
300000
300000
300000
300000
300000
40
12
12
12
12
12
625000
1250000
625000
2500000
100
i sin helhet
i vissa delar lika med ansökan till annan myndighet,
ange vilken:
Sökt stöd för dyr utrustning (Vetenskapsrådet, Wallenbergsstiftelsen e.d.) Gäller endast högskola.
Namn på doktorand
Namn på doktorand
Oxana Samoteeva
Namn på doktorand
Namn på doktorand
Övriga samarbetspartners (ange organisation och namn)
Alfa Laval, Rolf Christensen
Electrolux, Petter Svanbom, Ilan Cohen, Mario Filippetti
Ericsson, Benny Jansson, Martin Trygg
Huawei, Bo Lundblad, Vadim Tsoi,
SAPA, Claudi Martín-Callizo, Lisa Åbom
Datum
6 (6)
Resultatredovisning (ange här om resultatet kommer att redovisas på något ytterligare sätt än det obligatoriska, se information).
Delresultat kommer att presenteras för Effsys halvårsvis. Dessutom kommer resultaten att presenteras i
minst två artiklar i vetenskapliga tidskrifter, vid två internationella vetenskapliga konferenser och i en
doktorsavhandling.
Bilagor
Kopior på E-post med intygande om deltagande
Gantt-schema
Övriga bilagor
Inga övriga bilagor
Datum
Datum
16 januari 2011
16 januari 2011
Behörig firmatecknares (prefekt motsv.) underskrift
Projektledarens underskrift
Namnförtydligande, titel och telefon
Namnförtydligande och titel
Professor Björn Palm
Professor Björn Palm
Bilaga 1 till ansökan till Effsys+
Kopior på mail från deltagande företag:
Alfa Laval
From: Rolf Christensen [mailto:rolf.christensen@alfalaval.com]
Sent: den 12 januari 2011 15:26
To: Björn E Palm
Cc: matsr.nilsson@alfalaval.com
Subject: Re: Samarbete i nytt projekt inom Effsys+?
Hej Björn,
Jag tycker metodiken här verkar mycket intressant och är intresserad av att medverka i projektet.
Förslaget med 1/5 är OK för min del, dvs 75 / 150 / 75. Huvdsakligen i naturainsatser men en mindre
del kontant kan tänkas.
Best Regards
Rolf Christensen
Rolf Christensen, M.Sc. Ph.D
Senior Product Portfolio Manager, Industrial Equipment
Tel direct: +46 46 36 66 79 - Mobile: +46 709 36 66 79 - Fax: +46 46 30 30 47
rolf.christensen@alfalaval.com
Alfa Laval Lund AB
Box 74 - SE-221 00 Lund - Sweden
Visit: Rudeboksvägen 1 - SE-226 55 Lund
Registration number: 556016-8642 - Registered office: Lund
Tel switchboard: +46 46 36 65 00 - Fax switchboard: +46 46 30 50 90
www.alfalaval.com
______________________________________________________________________________
Electrolux
Dear Björn,
thank you for the discussion today about the Effsys+ program (application for
Study on heat transfer, pressure drop and flow behaviour visualization during
evaporation in small channels of a rectangular shape).
I want to confirm that Electrolux is interrested in participation in the
program in the following way:
A. Cash contribution 1/3 of total amount
B. Project work (internal man-hours) 2/3 of total amount.
The total amount agreed for the duration of the program is 300kSEK
Please feedback if you have any questions,
Kind Regards/Med Vänliga Hälsningar/Mit freundlichen Grüßen Petter Svanbom
______________________________________________________________________________
Ericsson
Hej Björn
Vi vill gärna deltaga i projektet son handlar om värmeövergång i värmeväxlare med smala kanaler. Vi
deltar med en insats som motsvarar 1/5 av kostnaden. Vår andel blir då 75 kkr för 2011, 150 kkr för
2012 och 75 kkr 2013. Andelen består av en kontant andel av minst 20 kkr. Vi måste dock diskutera
hur stor andelen kontanter ska vara i förhållande till arbetsinsatsen.
Anledningen till att vi vill vara med är att vi är intresserade av resultatet. Genom vårt deltagande ser vi
också en möjlighet att få tidig information och en liten möjlighet att påverka vad som ska göras.
mvh
Benny
BENNY JANSSON M.Sc.
Manager
Thermal Design
Enclosure Solutions
Isafjordsgatan 16b
164 40 Stockholm, Sweden
Phone +46 10 717 12 74
Fax +46 8 757 13 00
Mobile +46 761 01 12 74
benny.jansson@ericsson.com
www.ericsson.com
______________________________________________________________________________
Huawei
From: Bo Lundblad [mailto:Bo.Lundblad@huawei.com]
Sent: den 13 januari 2011 09:15
To: Björn E Palm
Cc: 'Vadim Tsoi'; l_lei@huawei.com; 'Urban.Fagerstedt'
Subject: RE: Delta i projekt om värmeöverföring?
Dear Professor Palm,
This is an interesting proposal and Huawei Technologies Sweden AB will be happy to participate as one of the
(5?) partners from the industry. With this mail I would like to declare that our contribution in this will mainly be of a
financial art to a sum of 300 kSEK over a three year period.
Our aim is also to provide some human resources if needed by this research project (reviews, workshops etc) .
This human resource support will however be small compared to the financial contribution and has to be carefully
planned to reduce the impact or our running R&D projects.
Brgds
Bo Lundblad
Senior Director Engineering Centre
Tel:+46-(0)8-12060766
Mobile:+46-(0)739200538
Fax:+46-(0)8-12060800
HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES SWEDEN AB
Address: Skalholtgatan 9-11
Box54
164 40 Kista
Sweden
www.huawei.com
______________________________________________________________________________
Sapa
Björn,
Härmed bekräftar jag att Sapa Heat Transfer är intresserad av att delta i Effsys+ projektet med titel ”Study on
heat transfer, pressure drop and flow behaviour visualization during evaporation in small channels of a
rectangular shape” och bidra med motsvarande 300 kkr i naturinsats (”in-kind work”) under perioden 20112013.
Kontaktperson på Sapa Heat Transfer blir i första hand jag själv.
Mvh,
Claudi Martín Callizo
HVAC&R Senior Application Engineer
Sapa Heat Transfer AB
Address: SE-612 81 Finspång Sweden
Mobile phone: +46-70-910 13 31
Fax: +46-122-197 32
mail: claudi.martin-callizo@sapagroup.com
www.sapagroup.com
Bilaga 2 till ansökan till Effsys+
Aktivitet
⇐1 jan 2011
Förberedande arbete, inköp av
mätutrustning, litteraturstudie
Officiell projektstart, 1/7,2011
Litteraturstudier,
Bygge av testobjekt, modifiering av
testrigg, inkörning
Experimentellt arbete
Utvärdering, publicering
Slutrapport, avhandling
6-mån rapport
Slutrapport, avhandlingsarbete
⇐1 juli 2011
⇐1 jan 2012
⇐1 juli 2012
⇐1 jan 2013
⇐1 juli 2013
⇐1 jan 2014
⇐1 juli 2014
Download