Organisations – departments and
Information transfer
Bulk Manufacturing – Processing
Product -Filling Equipment
Soap Manufacture
Production and Interdepartmental relationship
Marketing – National, Local Regional and Global
Technical Group: Research Development Quality
Operations Group: Manufacturing, Filling,, Assembly
Warehousing, Engineering, Industrial Engineering
Planning - National, Local Regional and Global
Purchasing - National, Local Regional and Global
New roles – New Product Co-Ordinator & Value Stream Manager
•Bulk Manufacturing – Scale Up
•Scale Up – defined as the successful duplication of the products primary characteristics over a
range of increasing batch sizes and across a variety of manufacturing equipment or vessels of
different sizes.
•The main factors that can influence the Scale Up Process :
•Heating and cooling times, Transfer and mixing times, High energy mixing (RPM) –
homogenisation rotor/stator and type, Raw material addition rates or transfer times oil phase to
water phase,
•Better still formulate with the factory production equipment in mind and use raw materials that
do not require special treatment.
•Pilot equipment –using the pilot size vessel – 100 KG scale equipment such as the Becomix,
Fryma and IKA which can be computer controlled. The manufacturing sequence can be
transferred to the production size vessels. This helps to reduce the variability in the different
parameters of heating, cooling, mixing and homogenisation.
•Bulk Manufacture - Scale Up - Vessels
•Pilot equipment – using 100 Kg size vessel that does not represent the same type of
mixing and cooling rates as used on a production vessel the scale up process is more
complex due to the variability in the different parameters heating, cooling, mixing and
homogenisation times. This can result in a product formulation having a different
appearance to the standard agreed between R&D and Marketing.
•This is a common mistake and has been seen in number of different processing plants
•Outcomes from Pilot Batch: Temperature - heating graph & - cooling graph,
Homogeniser and Mixer speed and timings, Viscosity adjustment graph, Rheology – profile,
Ph adjustment – depending upon formulation, Particles size - depending upon formulation.
With the software now available the batch data is collected and can then be used to
programme the Production plant
• Bulk Manufacturing
•Processing is the large scale mixing of raw materials - chemicals in a controlled way to
produce a finished bulk.
•A batch of bulk can be from 50 to 25,000 kg depending upon product type powder, cream
shower or shampoo
• Continuous processing of shampoo and shower gels.
•Before planning of a Works Experimental or Pilot batch a Risk Assessment must be carried
out to identify and review all risks.
•Agree parameters with R&D which are the same as the Scale Up batch - viscosity, mixing
and homogenisation speeds, heating and cooling temperatures and rates.
•Bulk Manufacture – Equipment Selection
•The selection of equipment depends on the formulation and the manufacturing process, batch size,
batch time, product fill, hot, cold, mixing or homogenisation and cooling rate.
•Detergent based formulations – propeller and vessel design – 70 % SLES dilution – homogeniser
•Vessel design height to diameter ratio, 1 to 2, Blade width 50% of vessel diameter and position on
shaft about 0.80 meter from top and bottom, Blade design
•Emulsion formulation – new vessel design:
•Environmental issues are having a big impact on the design of new processing vessels:
•Electric power requirements; Heating and cooling cycle time; Steam and Water volume; Hot and
cold emulsion processing; Wash cycle – CIP system
•in-vessel or in-line homogenisers for the formulation
•Guisti; Becomix; Fryma; IKA
•Powder formulations – Ribbon blender & hammer mill; Ribbon Blender & Turbo Mill or Plough
Shear Blender which combines blender and mill in one unit
•Bulk Manufacture – Equipment Selection
•GUISTI type – typical British design - flexible – pressure/vacuum vessel with in vessel
homogeniser – rota/stator and contra rotating scraper blades. A recirculation pipe can be
fitted to take bulk from the bottom of the vessel into the top of the vessel. Or a
recirculation pipe can be fitted to in – line homogeniser like a Silverson which can have a
greater power input able to homogenise thicker creams. Ideally fitted with load cells and
computer control to ensure uniformity of manufacture.
•Becomix/Fryma/IKA type – typical European design – pressure/vacuum vessel with in
vessel homogeniser – rota/stator and pump with a structured agitator mixing blade. With
this design recirculation pipe not required. These type of mixing vessels are ideally suited
to computer control which would include load cells, to ensure uniformity of manufacture
and the recording of specified parameters.
•Secondary equipment:
•Phase vessel with stirrer – Oil or Water - steam heated,
•Powder inductor – in vessel or standard alone unit – Flash Blender type units –with
Local extraction and ventilation units
•Bulk Manufacturing - Bulk Storage
•This depends upon the type and quantity and hazards of the bulk to be stored. Typical
examples are as follows:
•Shower Gels, Foam Baths, Shampoos and thin cream lotions - Storage Tank or bag in box
•Creams thick – Stainless Steel Drums or IBC, or Bag in Box:
•IBC stainless steel – require washout and sanitising before reuse. Wastage can be high due
to design.
•Bag in Box Flow boxes which with the use of a mangle can reduce the wastage to a
minimum. The advantage of Bag in Box is that they is no washout required of the storage
container as with IBC.
•Drums with pump follower diaphragm - require washout and sanitising before reuse.
Wastage can be high due to design.
•Powders – plastic bags in cardboard or plastic kegs or drums
•Bulk Manufacturing - Bulk Raw Material Storage
•This will depend upon the raw material, quantity, hazards and the storage conditions
recommended by the supplier. Typical examples are as follows:
•SLES – stored in insulated warmed storage tanks with a fail safe heating system – as it
becomes to hot then you get thermal decomposition – big issue!!!
•All external storage tanks used for raw materials containing water should be insulated for
frost protection and to reduce temperature shock if used in an emulsion
•Ethanol – stored in a tank that is intrinsically safe and fuller protected with fire fighting
•Water – storage tanks cleanable with CIP system – but depends upon water treatment
•All tank farms will need to be designed to meet local legislation.
•Filling and packaging
•All filling lines operate on the same principle:
•Filling; Capping; Labelling with coding; Pack to secondary packaging carton, tray & shrink wrap
Pack to outer; Pack to pallet.
•The filling and packing of cosmetics and toiletries is a complex operation driven by volume and
market. Plus the cost of equipment can be very high and delivery times up to 9 months. An new
automatic filling line to fill toiletries can cost £1 to 3.0 million depending how much automation is
installed. The use of pucks has become standard due to its flexibility – able to fill different size
•Filling and packaging - Filling Machines
•There is a variety of filling machines available from simple hand operated to highly complex multi
headed computer controlled automatic filling, capping, labelling and packaging.
•The viscosity, rheology and any product foaming, primary components - tube, pot, jar or toggle
will dictate the filling method. So you will need decide the cost of filling?
•A manual line may run at 30 to 45 units per minute
•A fully automatic filler that runs at 120 to 340 units per minute
•Filling and packaging Secondary packaging
•These are cartons, leaflets, trays, shrink film, shippers
•Straight on Trays normally hold 6 or 12 units depending upon how many facings on shelf.
•Shrink film – applied my healing sealing machine and heat tunnel to shrink a round pack.
•Shelf Ready Packaging – this is the latest idea but know clear design. Industry meeting later
in year to seek agreement. But has big implication for industry because until format agree
design of automatic loading equipment is not possible.
•Pallet Layout – important for high street stores as all pallets delivered into the warehouse are
scanned in as proof of delivery. Therefore units/packs per pallet is a key issue for the stores
and it costs to load and verify data on to the computer systems.
Soap is one of the oldest known toiletry products and there have been many attempts to change it.
We have types ranging from the normal hard toilet soap to versions of clear glycerine soaps which
are softer and gentler to the skin. Glycerine soap production is very different from normal soap
production and requires specialised equipment (some formulations may be covered by patents).
The typical constituents of toilet soap are soap base noodles, colours and pigments, conditioning
agents, perfume and extracts.
The original raw materials used for the production of soap form the basis of many emulsifiers and
detergents used in the cosmetics and toiletries industry today. It is therefore important to understand
these chemical and production processes.
George Whalley’s three articles entitled Soap Story (from the SPC April – June 1995, reproduced by
kind permission) gives a good overview of the chemistry of soap making, the drying and final
finishing of the soap bar.
There are three basic soap manufacturing routes:
a. Direct saponification of oils and fats – the Neutral Fat Route
b. Neutralisation of fatty acids – the fatty acid route
c. Saponification of fatty methyl esters
The production of all finished toilet soap bars follows a common flow pattern – blending and
pre-treatment of oils and fats, their conversion into soap, the recovery of glycerine, cooling
and partial drying of a liquid soap into a noodle form, and the conversion of soap noodles
into a finished bar – known as toilet soap finishing.
The Soap noodle can be dried in two different ways – vacuum drying and band drying these
two methods will produce soap of different appearance due to their crystalline structure.
So what goes into a bar of toilet soap - skin conditioning additives, fragrance, opacifiers,
colours, fluorescent brighteners, lather modifiers, emollients such as oils, fats, waxes, laolin
and fatty acids.