SS8H12 Topics of discussion

Warm up
• What developments have caused
Atlanta to become a major
transportation center?
Warm Up
• What does it mean to reapportion?
SS8H12 Topics of discussion
• County Unit system
– (end of the system and reapportionment)
• Jimmy Carter
– (as state senator, governor, president, former
• 1996 Olympics
– (its effect on Georgia)
• The 2-party system in Georgia
– Impact on politics
– Voting Rights Act of 1965
– People of the 2-party system
• Immigrant communities in Georgia
The student will explain the importance of significant
social, economical and political developments in
Georgia since 1970
a. Evaluate the consequences of the end of the county
unit system and reapportionment
b. Describe the role of Jimmy Carter in Georgia as state
senator, governor, president, and past president.
c. Analyze the impact of the rise of the two-party system
in Georgia.
d. Evaluate the effect of the 1996 Olympic Games on
e. Evaluate the importance of new immigrant
communities to the growth and economy of Georgia.
a. Evaluate the consequences of the
end of the county unit system and
• The end of the county unit system brought
many changes to Georgia politics
• The County Unit system became legal in 1917
when the Neill Primary Act was passed.
County Unit System
• Under the county unit system, the winner of the
popular vote in each county received the “unit”
votes for that county.
• This system gave each county a given number of
“units” based on the size of the population
– Urban counties received up to 8 votes
– Town counties received up to 4 votes
– Rural counties received at least 2 votes
• Smaller, rural areas had more voting units per
person than the large city areas.
County Unit System
• Look at the table below and explain what is
unfair about the county unit system
# of voting
County Unit System
• The system gave most of the political power to the
rural communities
• Many African Americans and whites who wanted to
see change lived in the cities
• Cities had fewer unit votes per person so their vote
did not count as much.
• Voting districts were segregated to increase the
voting power of white citizens which protected
segregation and slowed the civil rights movement
in the state.
County Unit
• Change came in 1962
• James Sanders from Atlanta sued James Gray
from a rural county saying Gray’s vote counted
more than his.
• The judge ruled in favor of Sanders and
declared that each person should have one
• This became known as the one man, one vote
• The 15th amendment guarantees equal
protection in regards to voting.
• The Supreme Court ordered Georgia to
reorganize its Congressional districts
• This was known as Reapportionment.
• The boundaries of the voting districts were
changed to make each district more equally
Effects of Reapportionment
Before Reapportionment
After Reapportionment
• All votes were equal.
Many African Americans
• African Americans and other
were unable to vote.
liberals were able to vote for
Laws were in place that
made it harder for African
• People in the cities had more
Americans to register to
influence on votes
• Groups like the NAACP helped
Most African Americans
African Americans register to
lived in urban areas that
had fewer unit votes.
• People began to vote for
The unit votes did not add desegregation and equality in
up to make a change.
public places
Effects of Reapportionment
• Carl Sanders was the first
governor elected by popular
vote under the new system
• Helped Georgia move to a
more industrial economy
• The legislature increased
minimum wage
• Laws helped protect African
American workers from other
racist practices.
• African Americans were able
to make more money and
live a better life
Warm Up
• Where is Jimmy Carter from and
what business was he involved in
before politics?
Jimmy Carter
• SS8H12 b. Describe the role of Jimmy Carter in
Georgia as state senator, governor, president,
and past president.
• Essential Question: What impact did Jimmy
Carter have in state and federal politics?
Jimmy Carter
• Born in Plains Georgia
• Attended Georgia Southern and
U.S. Naval Academy
• Returned home to Plains GA to run
the family farm.
• Peanuts were the primary crop.
• He differed from many of the other
residents of Plains in his views on
• He did not approve of the
segregation laws and this belief
shaped many of his political
Jimmy Carter
State Senator and Governor
• Elected to the Georgia
senate in 1962 and
• His main focus was
improving education
• He lost the governor
election in the primary
in 1966 but won in
Jimmy Carter
• In his inaugural address he said:
• “I say to you quite frankly that the time for
racial discrimination is over. No poor, rural,
weak, or black person should ever have to
bear the additional burden of being deprived
of the opportunity of an education, a job, or
simple justice.”
Jimmy Carter
as Governor
• Set up a task force to study every state agency
• Combined about 300 state agencies and
boards into about 30 agencies
– This restructure saved the state both time and
• Made the state give equal money to both
wealthy and poor schools throughout the
• Laws passed to protect the environment and
historical sites
Jimmy Carter
as Governor
• Made judges and state officials earn jobs
based on things they had done as apposed to
the political influence they held.
• Appointed women and people of color to
important jobs in the state government.
• Appointed more people of color to positions
than all of the governors before him
Jimmy Carter as President
Elected as President of the United States in 1976
Jimmy Carter as President
• Known as a casual and hard working president
• Daughter, Amy Carter, attended Washington
D.C. public school and would often have
school friends over to the white house to play
Jimmy Carter as President
• Very involved in peaceful relations between
• Developed and signed
– Panama Canal treaty
– Treaty of peace between Egypt and Israel
– SALT II treaty to reduce nuclear arms with Soviet Union
• Established diplomatic relations with China
Jimmy Carter as President
• Iranian Hostage crisis
– Carter allowed the former shah of Iran to see a Dr.
in the U.S. after being removed from power by
Ayatollah Khomeini.
– Angry Iranians seized a group of Americans in Iran
and held them hostage for 444 days.
– On attempt to rescued the hostages failed
– Americans unhappy with how the situation was
– This contributed to Carter’s loss in 1980
– The hostages were released the day after Carter
left office
Iran Hostage Crisis
Jimmy Carter as President
• Other problems with presidency.
– Price of oil remained high
– Inflation went from 6% to 15%
– Unemployment high
– Planned to cut federal spending
– Taxed imported oil
– Restricted consumer credit
Jimmy Carter as President
• Lasting outcomes of his Presidency:
–Created Department of Education
–Reorganized the departments of
Health, Education, and Welfare to
become the Department of Health
and Human Services
Jimmy Carter as Past President
• Carter moved back to Plains, Georgia after
presidency ended
• Continued work for human rights and peace
throughout the world through organizations such as:
– Carter Presidential
– Carter Center at
Emory University
– International Network
– Jimmy Carter
Work Project
– Atlanta Project to help
low-income families
Jimmy Carter as Past President
• Continues to work with leaders around the world to
build peace.
• Since his presidency, he has helped solve conflicts in
the following countries:
Ethiopia (1989)
Bosnia (1994)
Haiti (1994)
Liberia (1994)
North Korea (1994)
Sudan (1995)
Great Lakes Region of Africa (1995-96)
Venezuela (2002-2003)
Jimmy Carter as Past President
• Because of his efforts to maintain peace around
the world, Jimmy Carter has received many
– President Clinton awarded
him the Presidential Medal
of Freedom.
– Nobel Peace Prize
Warm Up
• What was the biggest cause of
inflation during Carter’s
4. How did Jimmy Carter personally help to end racial
discrimination and segregation as governor of Georgia?
Carter appointed more people of color to government
The Neill Primary Act supported discrimination a.
positions than ever before.
Carter made funding for education equal for students in
Requiring minorities to pass tests in order to vote.
low-income and wealthy areas.
Legalizing the county unit system.
Carter merged about 300 state agencies and boards into
about 30 agencies.
Encouraging blacks to vote in the cities.
Carter appointed judges and state government officials
Reorganizing the voting system in Georgia.
based on accomplishments and merit.
5. Which international award did President Carter receive for
The county unit voting system was declared
his efforts to find peaceful solutions around the world?
unconstitutional by the Supreme Court because a.
The Walter Mondale Peace Prize
it violated the:
The United Nations Service Award
The Nobel Peace Prize
Civil Rights Act.
The Presidential Medal of Freedom
Voting Rights Act.
6. Which economic development was the biggest cause of
Fourteenth Amendment.
inflation during Jimmy Carter’s presidency?
Equal Rights Protection Act.
The Iranian hostage crisis
Which term and definition is matched correctly? b.
The Soviet invasion of Afghanistan
Amendment—a change made to the U.S.
High prices on foreign oil
Decreasing aid and exports to foreign countries
7. In which branch of the armed forces did Jimmy Carter serve?
Legislator—the executive head of a state
Reapportionment—sharing funds with all citizens a.
Air Force
Segregation—racial equality in public places
SS8H12 a,b quiz
SS8H12 c. Analyze the impact of the rise of
the two-party system in Georgia.
• A one-party system only allows one political party to
have power
• Until the early 1970’s, Georgia’s politics were
controlled by the Democratic party due to the
County Unit System.
• The change came as a result of the end of the
County Unit System and the Voting Rights Act in
• The Voting Rights Act encouraged many blacks to
– 8 African Americans elected to Georgia House of
Representatives 2 elected to Senate in 1965 and 1966
From 1-party to 2
• The one-party system (Democratic Party) only
allowed a small percentage of the population to
have their views represented in government
– Mostly rural citizens
– Urban centers were not as influencial
– Only one side of an argument represented
• Came to an end with the end of County unit
– Gave urban and suburban areas equal voice in
Voting Rights Act of 1965
• Followed the Civil Rights Act of 1964
• Outlawed a States ability to disenfranchise
African Americans
– Literacy Tests
– Understanding tests
– Poll Tax
• As a result, the percentage of registered
voters in the African American community
rose from 23% to 61%
Two-Party System
• Julian Bond – civil rights leader
elected to Georgia House of
Representatives in 1965.
• Other legislators refused to allow
• They claimed Bond spoke against the
United states during the Vietnam war.
• Supreme Court ruled in favor of
Bond’s election saying the Georgia
had denied Bond’s freedom of
Outcomes of the two-party system
• Democratic party no longer in control causing
many laws to change.
• African Americans no longer had to pass tests to
become registered voters.
• No longer held back from polling places.
• Urban vote began to outnumber rural vote
• Political groups began to form in support of
equality in government, education, and
employment, and social welfare and start up
capital for African American run businesses.
People under the 2-party system
• Maynard Jackson – first
African American Mayor of a
Major city in the south
• Calvin Smyre – appointed by
Governor Joe Harris as
assistant floor leader in 1983
and became floor leader in
1986. (floor leader promotes
the governors interest on the
senate floor).
Economy and the 2-party system
• Before the 1970’s, agriculture dominated the
• After the death of the County Unit system, more
votes came from cities.
• More businesses and industries were able to
move into cities.
• Minimum wage was raised and standard of living
• People of color were offered more opportunities
both as employees and as business owners.
• Georgia’s leading manufacturing goods are now
chemicals, food products, textiles, and
transportation equipment.
SS8H12 c. quiz
1. Which politician is correctly matched with his
Julian Bond—Georgia legislator in 1965
Maynard H. Jackson—mayor of Savannah in
Gene Walker—House majority whip in 1989
Al Scott—Commissioner of Education
2. How has the economy in Georgia changed since
Farming is the largest industry in the state.
Industries have become the state’s largest
Not much has changed since the 1970s.
Entertainment is now the largest industry in
the state.
3. A person who supports a one-party system
would most likely agree with which of these
All people, no matter what their education,
should be able to vote.
There is only one good choice, do not get
people confused.
People of color need to have a voice.
Everyone’s opinion and vote counts.
4. Which of the following is a direct result of the
Voting Rights Act of 1965?
Segregation was made illegal at election
Black legislators were elected.
Many new black voters registered in 1966.
Julian Bond’s right to free speech was
SS8H12 d,e
d. Evaluate the effect of the 1996 Olympic
Games on Georgia.
e. Evaluate the importance of new immigrant
communities to the growth and economy of
Essential Question: What impact did the 1996
Olympic games have on Georgia?
1996 Olympics
1996 Olympics
• Mayor Andrew Young and Billy Payne were influential
in bringing the Olympics to Atlanta.
• Olympic committee was impressed with Atlanta
because of it History in the civil rights movement and
its mild climate.
• The Federal government paid to replace sidewalks, put
in street signs, and plant trees.
• Streets and highways were also fixed and enlarged.
• Hotels were added and many restaurants and shops
were built and sports venues and sites were added.
• Many people concerned with the amount of
commercialism (focus on making a lot of money)
involved in hosting the games.
1996 Olympics
• Effect on Georgia was good
– Added buildings have allowed Georgia to host
many conventions over the past 5 years
– Tourism has also increased since Olympics
• Housing in Atlanta has improved
– Housing areas replaced with nice apartment
– GA Tech dormitories improved to house Olympic
• Economy boosted
– 72 million visitors came to Atlanta
– Many people opened booths at different venues
Georgia Immigrants
• Immigrants – people who come to Georgia from
another country.
• Most immigrants come to find a better job and a
chance for a better life
• Throughout history, Immigrants have helped
economies by filling jobs when their weren’t
enough workers
• Many immigrants have come to Georgia from
Mexico and other Latin American countries
• Help the economy of an area by spending their
money in local stores and housing.
SS8H12 d,e quiz
1. Which of the following BEST states why
Georgia’s business leaders wanted to host
the Olympics?
To make money for themselves
b. To provide educational opportunities for
Georgia’s children
To show the world that Georgia is a city
for international business
d. To enjoy the games in their home state
3. A way in which immigrants help
the economy is by:
2. Much of the money needed to host the
Olympics came from:
4. Many of the immigrants who come
to Georgia are from:
The federal government
The International Olympic Committee
Foreign governments
Local businesses
Bringing money into the county
Sending money to the country
from which they came
Running for political office
Filling jobs when there aren’t
enough workers