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Engineering Technology Division Power Plant Construction and QA/QC Section 3.1 & 2 – Steam Turbine Fundamentals and Design Section 3.1 – Steam Turbine Fundamentals Overview • Hero Reaction Turbine – 120 B.C. • First Practical Turbine – 1884, C. Parsons • First Power Plant – 7.5 kw – 1890 • Reaction, Impulse and Velocity-Compounded • Reheat Steam – 1930’s • Last 100 years Turbine is the key element in generating electricity • Turbines run Generators, Pumps, Fans, etc. • Today up to 1,500 MW 2 Section 3.1 – Steam Turbine Fundamentals Overview 3 Section 3.1 – Steam Turbine Fundamentals Fundamentals Energy Transfer Coal, Natural Gas, Nuclear, Biofuel, Waste Fuel 4 Section 3.1 – Steam Turbine Fundamentals Reaction Turbines Newton’s third law of motion – For every action there is an equal and opposite reaction. Narrowing Steam Path Narrowing Steam Path 5 Section 3.1 – Steam Turbine Fundamentals Impulse Turbines Steam / Gas Flow Fixed Vanes Moving Blades 6 Section 3.1 – Steam Turbine Fundamentals Reaction – Impulse Comparison 7 Section 3.1 – Steam Turbine Fundamentals Velocity-Compounded Turbine Velocity compounding is a form of staging which by dividing the work load over several stages results in improved efficiency and a smaller diameter for the blade wheels due to a reduction in Ideal blade speed per stage. Inlet Pressure 1 P= V Inlet Velocity 8 Section 3.1 – Steam Turbine Fundamentals Turbine Components - Blades Impulse Reaction 9 Section 3.1 – Steam Turbine Fundamentals Turbine Diaphragms Diaphragms contain the fixed blades 10 Section 3.1 – Steam Turbine Fundamentals Steam Turbine Casing 11 Section 3.1 – Steam Turbine Fundamentals Turbine Rotor 12 Section 3.1 – Steam Turbine Fundamentals Turbine Shaft and Casing Seals 13 Section 3.1 – Steam Turbine Fundamentals Turbine Types Straight HP Tandem HP Tandem LP 14 Section 3.1 – Steam Turbine Fundamentals Turbine – Multiple Sets 15 Section 3.1 – Steam Turbine Fundamentals Questions? 16 Section 3.2 – Steam Turbine Design Overview Classification by; • Type – Reaction or Impulse • Steam Temperature and Pressure • Configuration – Compound, Tandem Compound, Cross Compound • Reheat • Output – MW • Structural Elements 17 Section 3.2 – Steam Turbine Design Turbine Design - Basics 18 Section 3.2 – Steam Turbine Design Materials • Blades • Stainless Steel – 403 & 422 (+Cr) • 17-4 PH steel (+ Ti) • Super Alloys • Rotor • High “Chrome – Moley” Steel – Cr-Mo-V • Low “Ni Chrome Steel – Ni-Cr-Mo-V 19 Section 3.2 – Steam Turbine Design Questions? 20