Sophremiano B. Antipolo
Professor and Director
Mindanao Center for Policy Studies
University of Southeastern Philippines
Angelina S. Pancho
Affiliate Research Fellow
Mindanao Center for Policy Studies
(& Chief, Human Resources Section
Department of Agrarian Reform, Davao Region)
 Evolving Sectoral and Spatial Devt Paradigms
Highlighting “Sustainable Development”
 Review of the Brundtland Commission Report
 Philippine Agenda 21
 UNESCO’s Convergent Move on ESD
 Engaging Teachers and Students in Community
Development & Reforestation: The Philippine
 Experiences in Life-long/Life-wide Education at
the Natl Econ and Devt Authority (NEDA)
 Experiences at the University of Southeastern
Philippines (USEP)
Evolving Sectoral and Spatial
Paradigms Highlighting
“Sustainable Development”
Industrial led-growth paradigm
Agriculture-led growth paradigm
National development paradigm
Sub-national or regional devt paradigm
Rural-urban linkage paradigm
Sustainable development paradigm
Focus: Sustainable Development Paradigm
 The Brundtland Commission defines
“sustainable development” as
development that meets the needs of
the present without compromising the
ability of the future generations to meet
their own needs.
Two concepts fundamentally linked to the
process of sustainable development:
1. The Basic Needs of Humanity – for
food, clothing, shelter, and jobs – must
be met. This involves, first of all, paying
attention to the unmet needs of the
poor, which should be given overriding
2. The limits to development are not
absolute but are imposed by present
state of technology and social
organization and their impacts upon
environmental resources and upon the
biosphere’s ability to absorb the effects
of human activities. But technology and
social organization can be both
managed and improved to make way
for the new era of economic growth.
Prerequisites for
sustainable development
1. Reviving growth;
2. Changing the quality of growth;
3. Meeting essential needs for jobs, food, energy,
water, and sanitation;
4. Ensuring a sustainable level of population;
5. Conserving and enhancing the resource base;
6. Re-orienting technology and managing risk;
7. Managing environment and economics in
decision making.
In sum, the Brundtland Commission argues
that the pursuit of sustainable devt requires:
1. A political system that secures
effective citizen participation in decision
2. An economic system that is able to
generate surpluses and technical
knowledge on a self-reliant and
sustained basis;
3. A social system that provides for
solutions for the tensions arising from
disharmonious development;
4. A production system that respects the
obligation to preserve the ecological base for
5. A technological system that can search
continuously for new solutions;
6. An international system that fosters
sustainable patterns of trade and finance; and
7. An administrative system that is flexible
and has the capacity for self-correction.
A More Equitable International
Economic System
1. The Development Squeeze;
2. Linking Trade, Environment, and
Development; and
3. Sustaining sustainability.
The Brundtland Commission Report:
Issues and Recommendations
Population and Human Resources;
Agriculture and Food Security;
Urban Human Settlements;
Biodiversity and Ecosytems; and
Managing the Oceans.
Philippine Agenda 21:
Towards Sustainable Development
1. The Current and Emerging Landscape
for Sustainable Development;
2. The Conceptual Framework for
Sustainable Development;
3. Elements of a Shared Vision;
4. Operational Framework and Action
Agenda; and
5. Implementation of Philippine Agenda
UNESCO’s Convergent Move
 UNESCO took a convergent move to
push for sustainable development in the
context of “Education For All” grand
alliance movement.
 It is contended that providing education
facilities is only the beginning.
 Education must be improved in quality
and in relevance to local and community
development needs.
 In many areas, it should be integrated with
children’s or youth’s participation in farm work,
a process requiring flexibility in the school
 It should impart knowledge relevant for the
proper management of local resources.
 Rural schools must teach about local soils,
water, and the conservation of both,
deforestation and how the community and the
individual can reverse it.
 In short, education process must span the
formal-nonformal-informal continuum.
 Thus, education must be considered a lifelong and life-wide process.
 When viewed this way, the development
process will not ignore the needs of
different ethnic / tribal groups and, in the
process, education will not leave them
vulnerable and subject to exploitation.
 Their traditional rights must be
recognized, local institutions protected,
and local communities must be given a
voice in the decisions about resource
use in their area.
 When this is done, real empowerment
and participatory development process
will be sustained.
Engaging Teachers and Students in
Community Devt and Reforestation
 Overall Country Experience
 Executive Order No. 303, series of 1973
 The Student Assistance Center for Community
Service and Reforestation
 National Seminar-Workshop of Students
Leaders and Advisers at Teachers Camp in
Baguio City
 Regional Seminar-Workshop on Community
Service and Reforestation held in each of the
regional capitals in the Philippines
Narrative of experiences (as a Delegate of
Xavier University) in Community Service and
 From the National Seminar-Workshop
@ Teachers Camp, Baguio City
 From the Regional Seminar-Workshop @
YMCA Hostel, Cagayan de Oro City
 Echo Seminar –Workshop @ Xavier University,
The Ateneo de Cagayan
 Summer Youth Civic Action Program (YCAP)
 Organization of Youth Community Service Club
(YCSC) as an implementation of Re-entry Plan
after the National and Regional SeminarWorkshop.
Experiences as a NEDA Professional in
Lifelong / Life-wide Education for
Sustainable Development
 Continuing commitment in Summer
YCAP advising summer interns at
NEDA Regional Office;
 Sustained cooperation as Honorary
Adviser to Youth Community Service
Clubs (YCSCs) as a Regent/Trustee of
state universities and colleges in
Mindanao (as Regional Director in
Region IX)
Experiences @ the University of
Southeastern Philippines (USEP)
1. As Professor-in-Charge of a PhD Course on
Environment and Natural Resource Policy
2. As Director of MCPS in coordination with
Research, Extension and Lifelong Center
(Continuing Education Center)
3. Collaboration with Teachers’ Training
Center in Mindanao
4. Coordination with the Office of Student
Affairs (OSA) for Youth Community Service
Club Chapter in USEP.