Paid intelligence agencies. - Peace and conflict studies


United States - Intelligence


Director of National Intelligence

National Intelligence Council

Central Intelligence Agency; Abroad

National Security Agency

National Reconnaissance Office Agency

National Geo-spatial Intelligence Agency

Federal Bureau of Investigation; Home

Dept of Homeland Security Office and Int Analysis

National Counter terrorism Center

National Counter intelligence Executive

Defense Intelligence Agency: Army, Air, Navy, Marine..

UK - Intelligence Agencies

Joint Intelligence Committee (JIC)

MI6 Secret Intelligence Service (SIS); Securing Int from Outside threats.

Government Comn HQ (GCHQ)

MI5 Security Service (SS); Home Security.

National Criminal Intelligence Service (NCIS)

Metropolitan Police (Scotland Yard)

India - Intelligence Agencies

Joint Intelligence Committee (JIC)

Research and Analysis Wing (RAW); Abroad

Intelligence Bureau (IB); Home

• Defence Intelligence: DMI, Army, Air, Navy, Def

Security Corps, Sp frontier Force, National

Security Guards, Sp Security Bureau .

Para-Mil Intelligence: e.g CRPF, BSF, Sp

Protection Force, Rapid Reaction Force .

Min of Home Affairs- CBI

Min of Finance – Economic Int Council

Why Intelligence?

• Help decision-makers at every level to make informed decisions.

• Helps decision-makers/Government officials from being surprised.

• Correct intelligence will help the Government/ orgs to keep the initiative on their side.

• Intelligence is required both for offensive and defensive actions.


Intelligence is secret state or group activity to

understand or influence foreign or domestic entities e.g

FBI, MI-5.

• Intelligence analysis is the application of individual and collective cognitive methods to weigh data and test hypotheses within a secret socio-cultural context.

Intelligence errors are factual inaccuracies in analysis resulting from poor or missing data; intelligence failure is systemic organizational surprise resulting from incorrect, missing, discarded, or inadequate hypotheses.


Core Systems : Interoperability-Int op systems and applications.

Tasking : D irect and prioritize collection reqs. Form the interface between consumers and producers of int products.

Collection : Info comes from orgs, echelons, svcs, and int disciplines. These include but are not limited to tactical groundbased IEW systems, unmanned aerial vehicles, and space systems.

Processing : C onvert, and correlate info into a form usable as combat int. At all echelons of the int architecture, and include both primary processing and secondary exploitation systems.

Dissemination : P rovide the comns links - collection systems, processors, and users through physical comns channels, as well as networks, protocols and software, and databases and servers for the staging of products for dissemination.

Intelligence Cycle


The highest policy levels of government set, in the broadest sense, intelligence priorities and policies.

• Nation state’s try to find out the threat to their national vital interests (NVIs).

Some HOG give quite specific orders, sometimes, illegal ones.

• Some say, “Do what you gotta do”.

Can the Govt encroach upon the personal freedom and liberty?

Thin line between personal freedom and liberty versus security and obligations to the nation! How to balance?


Obtain raw information (varieties of sources):

- Governmental sources: Ministries and depts.

- Non Governmental sources: Freely obtained info.

- Paid intelligence agencies.

- Obtained from friendly countries.

- Obtained from friendly organizations.

- Electronic/IT/ UAV/Satellite/Sig/ etc..

- Agents



Embassy staffs

Paid agents

Committed agents

Disguised friends

Expedition team

Dhulikhel PDL







Imagination. (Wrong/Right)

Interpretation. (Wrong/Right)

Priority. (too much of info; too many sources.

Correct processing.

Nat Int Estimate

Analytic disputes-Vietnam war Inaccurate?

Mil Comd HQ

O of Sec of Def CIA


• Communication channels

• Chain of command

• Established protocols

• Data-base

• Servers and networks

Intelligence Failure

• Direction : Policymakers fail to give direction.

• Collection : Int services fail to collect critical info.

• Analysis : Services analyze data incorrectly .

• Time : Failure to disseminate intelligence quickly enough .

Right org/person : Failure to disseminate to the right decisionmakers

Inaction ; blaming one another.

John Boyd’s OODA loop

(Designed for Air-Air Fighter Aircrafts)

Observe Be aware of threat/opportunity




Put the observation into the context of other information

Make the best possible action plan that can be carried out in a timely manner.

Carry out the plan


Observe Orient Decide Act

Act Decide Orient Observe

Observe Orient Decide Act

Interactions between the Int Cycle and OODA loop.

Int Collection Management

• Open Source Intelligence (OSINT)

(TV, Radio, Papers, Seminars etc…Dissemination helps common understanding.)

Human Intelligence (HUMINT)

-Clandestine HUMINT

Covert Action

Direct Action (Mil)

Clandestine Cell System

Special reconnaissance

-Imagery Int (IMINT)

-Signal Int (IMINT)


• By Alliances, Nations and Industries.

• Operational Platforms by Nation.

• SigInt in modern History:.

-TechInt (Technical Intelligence).

-Measurement and Signature Intelligence.(MASINT)

(To sp treaty compliance, early warning, and force protection.)

-Electro-Optical MASINT.

-Nuclear MASINT.

-Geophysical MASINT.

-Radio Frequency MASINT.

-Materials MASINT.

Int-analysis Management

• Intelligent Analysis

• Cognitive traps for Intelligent Analysis

-Int dissemination management.

-Int Cycle security.

• Counter Intelligence

-Counter-Int & Counter Terror Orgs.

-Counter Int Failure.

Ladder of priorities

Higher Priotity

Least Priotity









Joint Intelligence

India: Jt. Int. Cttee. (JIC)

Germany: Combat Intelligence Readiness Facility




Joint Analysis Center (JAC). Jt Int Cttee.


Director of National Intelligence and Natl Int


Joint military and civilian office (JMAC) is estd.


Creative tension

Law enforcement versus national int org.

Foreign-oriented versus domestic-oriented organizations.

Public versus private interests.

Conflict between clandestine intelligence and covert action.

Each may compete for resources in the same Org.


Nation states had creatively used the intelligence in sp of their National Interests both on peace and war.

Many Nation states are using it effectively today.

Immediate, short term and long term intelligence is planned and prioritized.

Int org/agents are tasked to gather and forward infos to their respective centers so that it can be converted into meaningful and timely intelligence enabling the org/state to accomplish the task it has been undertaking.

Sometimes, the int may not be timely, inaccurate or wrongly interpreted; but, there is no substitute to this.