Introduction To Die Casting - North American Casting Corporation

Chapter 1 Objectives
 List the topics covered in this course
 Identify the
two major differences between
die casting and other metal casting
 List the three elements that form the basis for
most die casting materials
 List at least five services provided by the die
casting trade association, NADCA
New Term
 Metalcasting
• The industry of pouring liquid metal into a mold
to achieve a desired shape.
Metal Casting History
 An
ancient industry:
Sand casting
Investment casting
Lost foam casting
Permanent mold casting
Centrifugal casting
 All
foundry processes
Die Casting vs Foundry Process
 Die
casting is a variation of metalcasting
 Liquid metal injected into reusable steel
mold, or die, very quickly with high pressures
 Reusable steel tooling and injection of liquid
metal with high pressures differentiates die
casting from other metalcasting processes
Sand, Investment, and
Lost Foam Casting
 Use
gravity to fill the mold
 Mold is destroyed to remove casting
 Metal flow is slow
 Walls are much thicker than in die casting
 Cycle time is longer than die casting because
of inability of mold material to remove heat
Permanent Mold Casting
 Cousin
to die casting
 Mold removed, not destroyed
 Uses gravity to fill mold
 Metal flow is slow
 Mold is steel - has
comparatively good thermal conductivity
 Machines smaller
Centifugal Casting
 Frequently made by
 The choice for low volume castings with a
small amount of pressure
 Molds are placed around the circumference
of a centrifuge
• As centrifuge spins, metal poured in at center
and centrifugal force distributes metal to the
Die Casting History
 Begun during middle of 19th
 In 1849, 1st machine for casting printing type
 20 years before began casting other shapes
 Linotype machine direct result of the casting
of printer’s type
 1892 - parts for phonographs, cash registers
 1900’S - babitt alloy bearings produced
History of Casting Alloys
 Various compositions of tin
and lead were
the first die casting alloys
 Development of zinc alloys just prior to
World War I caused decline of tin and lead
 Magnesium and copper used next
 1930s-many of today’s alloys developed
 Still making refinements resulting in new
alloys with increased strength and stability
Process Improvements
 To die steels
 To die construction
 In casting capability
 In production capacity of the
Current Industry - 1995 Figures
Approximately 450 die casters in North America
with sales of $8 billion
 Die castings produced from aluminum, copper,
lead, magnesium and zinc alloys as well as various
composite materials
 The top three alloys were:
• Aluminum
• Zinc
• Magnesium
Current Use of Castings
 Cars
 Appliances
 Office equipment
 Sporting goods
 Machinery
 Toys
 Many
other applications
Types of Casting Operations
 “Captive” die caster
• Produces die castings for their own use, for
example, General Motors
 “Custom” die caster
• Produce castings for customers’ use
• Typically only manufacture for other companies,
not themselves
North American Die
Casting Association (NADCA)
 North American trade
association is NADCA
 Mission is to be the worldwide leader of and
resource for stimulating continuous
improvement in the die casting industry
 Provides services to its members
R&D of New Materials
and Technologies
 Die
casting alloy performance
 Die life
 Process capability
 Process simulation
 Energy conservation
 Environmental management/pollution
 Rapid tooling
Education and training
 At
Chicago headquarters
 At local chapters
 In-plant
 Through Learn@Home courses
“Education for the Die
Casting Industry”
Government Relations,
Safety, and Awards
 Source for
federal govt. relations activity
 Speak with single voice in Washington, D.C.
• $5.8 million in DOE research dollars in 1998
 Recognizes outstanding safety
 Annual Awards to distinguished members
 Annual scholarships awarded
Marketing Statistics and Surveys
 End Markets
for Die Castings
 Financial Survey
 Die Cast Machine Study
Meeting. Conferences,
and Exposition
 International Congress and Exposition held
every two years
 Other conferences and meetings, including:
Plant Management Conference
Government Affairs Briefing
Die Materials Conference
Computer Modeling
Technology Workshops
Other Services
Die Casting
Engineer Magazine
 Publications,
software and video
 Diecasting Development
 NADCA website at
 Die
casting began in the 19th century
 Castings today:
• Top alloys-aluminum, zinc, magnesium
• Used in a wide variety of items
• Produced by captive or custom die casters
is the trade association representing
the industry
• Provides many services to the industry