Prosthetics & Orthotics in India

Training in Prosthetics & Orthotics
Engineering in INDIA
Pritpal Singh Sidhu
Sr .Clinical Orthotist
Central Orthotist Ltd.
Palmerston North
Personal Profile
B.Sc Non Medical 1988 (India)
Diploma in Prosthetics & Orthotics Engineering 1991
PG Diploma in Lower Limbs Prosthetics Bio-Mechanics
M. Sc Rehabilitation Science (Adv. Prosthetics ) 2004
Work experience
Prosthetist/Orthotist & Office In charge in District
Disability Rehabilitation Centre Patiala (India) Feb1992July2007
Clinical Orthotist Orthotics Centre Wellington & Auckland
July2007-Jan 2009
Professional Profile
The following professional profile has its basis in the
Report of the United Nations Inter-Regional Seminar
on Standards for the Training of Prosthetist (UN,
1968) – the so called Holte Report. It has moreover
been modified to comply with Guidelines for Training
of Personnel in Developing Countries for Prosthetics
& Orthotics Services (WHO, 1990).
– Participates as full member of the clinic team; take part in
the designing of the prosthetics/orthotics device, including
the socket or body/device interface, suspension and
selection of proper components.
– Records and reports any pertinent information regarding
patient and patient’s families, including a determination of
expectations and needs regarding prosthetic and orthotic
aids and communicates appropriate information to the
patients and their families about these.
National Institutes
New Delhi
Department of Rehabilitation, Safdarjung
Indian Spinal Injuries Centre
Pandit Deendayal Upadhayaya Institute for
the Physically Handicapped
All India Institute of Physical Medicine &
Government Prosthetic & Orthotic College
& Dept. Paraplegia Hosp. & Physiotherapy
West Bengal
National Institute for the Orthopaedically
Swami Vivekanand National Institute of
Rehabilitation Training and Research,
Other Institutes & Organizations
ALMICO {Artificial Limbs Manufacturing Corporation of
India} is a non-profit making organization, working
under the aegis of Govt of India, Ministry of Social
Justice & Empowerment. It was incorporated in 1972
to take up manufacture and supply of artificial limb
components and rehabilitation aids for the benefit of
the physically handicapped and started production in
The ALMICO is running a one year technician course
Taj Mahal (Agra)
Courses for Engineers / Technicians
Master of Science in Prosthetics & Orthotics
Bachelor in Prosthetics & Orthotics
Diploma in Prosthetics & Orthotics
Certificate Course in Prosthetics & Orthotics
M.Sc. in Prosthetics & Orthotics
Entry Requirement:
Bachelors degree in Prosthetics & Orthotics
from recognized University & RCI.
Teacher student ratio: Two nos. per
The two year full time applied science
curriculum combines clinically oriented
course work in Rehabilitation Medicine.
Bachelor in Prosthetics & Orthotics
Entry requirements A candidate who has passed 10+2 in
science or equivalent with physics, chemistry and
mathematics/biology (with aggregate of 50% marks) will
be eligible for admission to this course (equivalent to
NCEA Level 3 in NZ with science subjects).
DURATION OF COURSE The total duration of course is
of 4 years with 6 months internship.
Teaching Hours Total teaching hours in a year would be
approximately on the basis of 6 hours per day 204X6
=1224 hours in a year.
Diploma in Prosthetics & Orthotics
Entry requirements
– A pass in the Higher Secondary Examination (10+2) in science
subject, viz Physics, Chemistry, Biology and/or Mathematics. (
equivalent to NCEA Level 3 in NZ) OR
– A pass in the 10+2 in the vocational stream in the trade of
machinist or 10+2 and I.T.I. Certificate in the trade of Fitter /
Turner / Machinist / Tool or Die Maker.
– A pass in the final diploma examinations conducted by the Board
of Technical Education of the State Govt. in Mechanical,
Electrical/ or Electronics Engineering are also eligible.
Duration of the course
– The course duration is Two Years followed by Internship of Six
Months in any recognized Rehabilitation / Limb Fitting Centres.
Certificate Course for Technicians
Entry Requirement Certificate from I.T.I. in any
of the trades of fitter/carpenter/leather. Or 10th
class pass and two years of practical experience
in a recognised P&O Centre under a P&O
Purpose To train category III personnel (bench
workers) for assembly and fitting of Orthopaedic
appliances, artificial limbs and other
rehabilitation aids under supervision of
Prosthetist & Orthotist (Category I professional).
Duration One year
Char Minar Hydrabad
Recognition of P&O course in India
UN (Holte Report ) 1968
WHO 1990
ISPO ????
Rehabilitation Council of India
The Rehabilitation Council of India (RCI) was set up
as a registered society in 1986. On September,
1992 the RCI Act was enacted by Parliament and it
became a Statutory on 22 June 1993. The Act was
amended by Parliament in 2000 to make it more
broad based.
The mandate given to RCI is to regulate and
monitor services given to persons with disability, to
standardize syllabi and to maintain a Central
Rehabilitation Register of all qualified professionals
and personnel working in the field of Rehabilitation
and Special Education. The Act also prescribes
punitive action against unqualified persons
delivering services to persons with disability.
Objective of RCI
The Council ensures that its recognized
training institutions situated across the
country adhere to the established norms and
for this purpose the Council continuously
monitors the quality of the training
programme by adopting following policies:– Inspection of the Institution
– Surprise Inspection & Mid -Term Report
One of the main functions of the Council is to
standardize the training courses for various
categories of Professionals/Personnel for ensuring
quality services to the people with disabilities. The
Council keeps on modifying/revising the existing
syllabus and adopt new training programmes
incorporating new developments.
The Council has so for standardized 80 Long Term/
Short Term Training Courses, which include 11
Courses developed during the current year, with the
help of respective Expert Committees constituted
by the Council.
Privilege of Persons Registered with RCI
– No person, other than the rehabilitation professionals/ personnel who possess a
recognized rehabilitation qualification and is enrolled on the Central Rehabilitation
– shall hold office as rehabilitation professional or any such office (by whatever
designation called) in Government or in any institution maintained by a local or other
– shall practice as rehabilitation professional anywhere in India;
– shall be entitled to sign or authenticate any certificate required by any law to be
signed or authenticated by a rehabilitation professional;
– shall be entitled to give any evidence in any court as an expert under Section 45
of the Indian Evidence Act, 1872 on any matter relating to the handicapped:
– Any person who acts in contravention of any provision of above shall be punished with
imprisonment for a term which may extend to one year or with fine which may extend to
one thousand rupees, or with both.
Golden Temple (Amritsar)
RCI is also responsible for development and standardisation
of training courses in the field of Special Education &
Rehabilitation and also to update the knowledge & skills of
professionals working in different areas of disability.
The Council has taken a decision that attending two CRE's 5
days duration each is a pre-condition for revalidation of
registration for the professional/personnel. The information
regarding Continuing Rehabilitation Education (CRE) Topics
and Programme being conducted at selected RCI approved
Training Institutions Nationwide is given underneath for the
Rehabilitation Professionals & Personnel working in
disability areas, so that they can join the nearby centre to
upgrade their professionals skills.
Objectives of CRE
The Council supports relevant CRE
programmes with the following objectives :
– To upgrade the knowledge & skills of in
service & practising Rehabilitation
Professionals & Personnel already registered
with the RCI u/s 19 of the RCI Act of 1992.
– To update Professional knowledge of Masters
Trainers working in the field of Rehabilitation
& Special Education.
Categories registered under RCI
1.Audiologist and Speech Therapists
2.Clinical Psychologists
3.Hearing Aid and Ear Mould Technicians
4.Rehabilitation Engineers and Technicians
5.Special Teachers for Education and Training the handicapped
6.Vocational Counsellors, Employment Officers and Placement
Officers dealing with handicapped
7.Multipurpose Rehabilitation Therapists, Technicians
8.Speech Pathologists
9.Rehabilitation Psychologists
10.Rehabilitation Social Workers
11.Rehabilitation Practitioners in Mental Retardation
12.Orientation and Mobility Specialists
13.Community Based Rehabilitation Professionals
14.Rehabilitation Counsellors/Administrators
15.Prosthetists and Orthotists
16.Rehabilitation Workshop Managers
Metro Rail service (DELHI)
Other institutes in India
About 1000 NGO’s & other private
institution are working in the filed of
prosthetics & Orthotics. Some of them are
also conducting various short courses &
training programmes.
Otto Bock India
Otto Bock India established as
100% owned subsidiary
company in Mumbai, India in
1998 with the objective of
making the highest quality of
international mobility solutions
available to India's estimated
9.0 million disabled people.
Endolite India Ltd., an ISO 9001:2000
Company was established on 07 Dec 95.
It is a Rehabilitation Services Company
focussed on Prosthetic & Orthotic services
through its Company run clinics and
dealers. It is managed by a Board of
Directors & has its registered office a A-4,
Naraina Industrial Area Phase-I, New
Bharat Vikas Parishad
Bharat Vikas Parishad is the only nongovernmental organisation beginning with the
establishment of its first Viklang Centre in Delhi
in 1990 that renders service to the largest
number of handicapped persons in the country
year after year. The Parishad has so
far provided artificial limbs, calipers, tricycles,
wheel chairs and hearing aids to about 2.65
lakhs handicapped persons costing over Rs.
32 crores free of cost (110000 NZ$ approx).
Bhagwan Mahaveer Viklang
Sahayata Samiti & Jaipur Foot
Technology Jaipurfoot History Visitors Views The
idea of making Jaipur foot was first conceived by Mr.
Ram Chander Sharma (Masterjee) who designed and
developed the foot and the limb.The Jaipur Foot was
developed in 1968.
The BMVSS is working under the leadership & guidance
of Mr. D. R. Mehta and because of his Managerial
background this research work could be organized.
Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO) (Indian
equivalent of the NASA of USA), the most prominent
Scientific Institution of India, dealing with space research
and products has signed an agreement with BMVSS for
the development of polyurethane foot (instead of
vulcanized rubber).
Handicap International (INDIA)
HI activities are carried out by or in partnership with local organizations. Handicap
International provides capacity building support (technical, financial and
organizational) to enable the partners to sustain their mission and carry out the
activities mentioned below.
1. Specialised services as a condition for full participation: orthopaedics
and rehabilitation
2. Equal opportunities: Inclusion, visibility and rights of disabled people
3. Public health and disability prevention
4. New project areas
Livelihoods for persons
Livelihoods for persons with disabilities in India
Exploratory mission to disaster prone states such as Orissa
Indian Red Cross Society
Indian Red Cross Society (IRCS) was established
in 1920 under the Indian Red Cross Society Act
and incorporated under Parliament Act XV of
1920. The act was last amended in 1992 and of
rules were formed in 1994.
The Indian Red Cross is a voluntary humanitarian
organization having a network of over 700
branches throughout the country, providing relief
in times of disasters/emergencies and promotes
health & care of the vulnerable people and
Qutab Minar (DELHI)
Professional Bodies
Orthotics & Prosthetics Society of India
Indian Association of Prosthetist &
Indian Association of Rehabilitation
Provision of Aids & Appliances
Aids/appliances are supplied to persons
with disabilities under ADIP scheme of
Ministry of Social Justice & Empowerment,
Govt. of India
Referral System
PMR Specialist
Orthopedic Specialist
Prosthetist/Orthotist registered under RCI
Other Specialist ( ENT, Eye, & Skin
Jaisal Mer (RAJASTHAN)
Persons with disability Act 1995
While India's economy growth rate has risen,
35% of the population still lives below the
poverty line and 39% of adults are illiterate. The
number of disabled people would be around 55
million. Despite the introduction of legislation like
the Persons with Disabilities Act, disabled
people disabilities are amongst the most
disempowered groups in India. They are
constantly faced with discrimination and are
subjected to neglect, prejudice, revulsion,
rejection and pity.
Criteria for ADIP assistance
Disability certificate ( only 40% permanent
disabled can get benefits under ADIP
Monthly income
Less than 6500 rupee = 100% subsidy
Between6500-10000 = 50% subsidy
Over 10000 = NIL
Benchmark statement for prosthetics and orthotics
Subject benchmark statements provide a means of
describing the nature and characteristics of
programmes of study and training in health care. They
also represent general expectations about standards
for the award of qualifications at a given level and
articulate the attributes and capabilities that those
possessing such qualifications should be able to
( The Quality Assurance Agency for Higher Education 2001. Australia)
Why Benchmark?
Benchmark statements are used for a
variety of purposes. Primarily, they are an
important external source of reference
when new programmes are being
designed and developed.
(The Quality Assurance Agency for Higher Education 2001. Australia)
Legal Importance of bench marking
Expectations of the Prosthetist & Orthotist in
providing patient/client services;
The application of practice in securing,
maintaining or improving health and well-being;
The knowledge, understanding and skills that
underpin the education and training of P&O
Planning for P&O Training in NZ
Generation of resources
To carry on the rehabilitation work in NZ
the P&O professionals has to under stand
that there if the situation (NO TRAINING)
remain same then after 7-10 year there
wouldn’t be any body to render services.
More over on 100% depaendence on
international work force is not a good idea.
Resources we need
Master trainers
Volunteer for infrastructure suppliers
Own funds ( Annual Subscription & donation)
Request for funds from Govt.
Sponsorship from local suppliers
Interested learners
Implementation of International
curriculum in P&O in NZ
Phase one (Manpower Development):
– Training/work shop for local professionals by local master
trainers for 3-4 times a year at least for two years. {2009-2011}
Phase Two ( Trainers Development)
– Advance Training of all professional by international master
trainers,1-2 times a year. {2011-2012}
Phase Three (Start of Diploma course & Certificate
course in P&O). {2012-2015}
Phase Four ( Start of Degree Course & then Master
Degree) {2015-----}
Phase Two ( Trainers Development)
– Advance Training of all professional by
international master trainers,1-2 times a year.