MIME 4160 Facilities Planning and Design Spring 2007

advertisement
Designing Products
and Processes
with a Future
1
What does it take?

Involve the customer

Meet with the customer

Listen to customer

Educate the customer

Incorporate quality
function deployment
(QFD)

Design for robustness
2
What is a customer?







The person who buys the product?
The federal regulator?
The consumer reporter?
The marketing and sales department?
Engineering?
Manufacturing?
Suppliers?
3
How do you hear the customer?
Features
Needs
 Wants
 Satisfaction
 Perception

Quality
ABOUT
Value
Importance
Competitors
Detractors
4
Product Design
What the Customer
wanted
What Marketing described
What Engineering designed
Actually Manufactured
5
What is Design?
……A Decision Making Process
Flexibility
 Idea generation
 Assessment of firm’s ability
 Customer Requirements
 Functional Specification
 Product Specifications
 Concept Generation
 Concept Selection
 Engineering Design
 Engineering Evaluation
 Prototype and Testing
 Manufacturing
Design
to carry out
Cost
6
Few Successes
Number
2000
1500
1000
Ideas
1750 Market
requirement
1000
Design review,
Testing, Introduction
Functional
specifications
500
500
0
Product
specification
100 25
One
success!
Development Stage
7
QUALITY FUNCTION
DEPLOYMENT

Quality Function Deployment
 Uses
the voice of the customer to build a
design tool:

House of quality
QFD: An approach that integrates the “voice of the
customer” into the product and service
development process.
8
Quality Function Deployment
 Identify
customer wants
 Identify how the good/service will satisfy
customer wants
 Relate customer wants to product hows
 Identify relationships between the firm’s
hows
 Develop importance ratings
 Evaluate competing products
9
House Of
Quality
Importance
Product
characteristics
Customer
requirements
Relationship
matrix
Idea Generation Stage
Provides basis for entry into market
 Sources of ideas

 Market
need (60-80%); engineering &
operations (20%); technology; competitors;
inventions; employees

Follows from marketing strategy
 Identifies,
defines, & selects best market
opportunities
11
Customer Requirements Stage
Identifies & positions key product
benefits
 Stated in core benefits proposition
(CBP)
 Example: Long lasting with more
power
(Sears’ Die Hard Battery)
House of Quality
Identifies detailed list of
product attributes desired
Product
by customer
Characteristics
 Focus groups or
Customer
1-on-1 interviews
Requirements


12
Functional Specification Stage


Defines product in terms of
how the product would meet
desired attributes
Identifies product’s
engineering characteristics
 Example:


printer noise (dB)
Prioritizes engineering
characteristics
May rate product compared
to competitors’
House of Quality
Product
Characteristics
Customer
Requirements
13
Product Specification Stage


Determines how product will be made
Gives product’s physical specifications
 Example: Dimensions, material etc.


Defined by engineering
drawing
Done often on computer
House of Quality
Component
Specifications
 Computer-Aided
Design (CAD)
Product
Characteristics
14
Quality Function Deployment

Product design process using
cross-functional teams
 Marketing,
engineering, manufacturing
Translates customer preferences into
specific product characteristics
 Involves creating 4 tabular ‘Matrices’ or
‘Houses’

 Breakdown
product design into increasing
levels of detail
15
To Build House of Quality
 Identify
customer wants
 Identify how the good/service will satisfy
customer wants.
 Relate the customer’s wants to the
product’s hows.
 Develop importance ratings
 Evaluate competing ideas and concepts
Ultimately you choose the design
Not the customer!
16
House of Quality Example
You’ve been assigned
temporarily to a QFD
team. The goal of the
team is to develop a
new camera design.
Build a House of
Quality.
© 1984-1994 T/Maker Co.
17
House of Quality Example
What the customer desires
(‘wall’)
Customer Customer
Requirements Importance
Light weight
Easy to use
Reliable
Target Values
18
House of Quality Example
Average customer
importance rating
Customer
Requirements
Light weight
Easy to use
Reliable
Customer
Importance
3
2
1
Target Values
19
House of Quality Example
Choose engineering
characteristics to satisfy the
customer requirements
Customer
Requirements
Light weight
Easy to use
Reliable
Customer
Importance
Aluminum
Parts
Steel
Parts
Auto
Focus
Auto
Exposure
3
2
1
Target Values
20
House of Quality Example
Relationship between
customer attributes &
engineering characteristics
(‘rooms’)
Customer
Requirements
Light weight
Easy to use
Reliable
Target Values
Customer
Importance
Aluminum
Parts
Steel
Parts
3
2
1
5
2
4
19
8
14
Auto
Focus
Auto
Exposure
8
5
21
7
3
17
21
QFD Cascades
22
Sample House of Quality
Adaptation of Piano
Pedals for an Adult
Todd Krzycki
23
Project Description

The Client has Multiple Sclerosis (MS)
which has taken her ability to use her right
leg and more specifically for this project
her right foot. We will design a pedal
adaptation to utilize the Una Corda and
Damper pedals with her left foot with out
making her strain to reach the right pedal.
Todd Krzycki
24
Project Objectives
Allow the client to use the Damper pedal
with minimal effort.
 Make a lightweight and small adaptive
device to make the right pedal accessible.
 Design a device that can be transported
easily from home to school and back.
 Avoid any sounds that could detract from
the piano.

Todd Krzycki
25
Apparatus Usage
•The apparatus is going to
be used by the left foot of
the client.
•Using hands or arms to
activate the pedals is not
feasible because that would
restrict the clients playing
ability.
•Using your head or chin to
activate the pedals is an
option but it would make
the apparatus large and
hard to transport.
26
Electric Apparatus
Jeff Adams
27
Electric Apparatus
Pros
Cons
•Easy to push the pedals
down. The electric
components will do the work
that would have been
required by the client.
•Electric components are
costly making the over all
cost of the project high.
•Compact. Electric
components are small and
can be made to fit in a small
area.
•Apparatus would fit
smoothly between and
around the piano pedals.
•Safety concerns with
electricity in the apparatus,
as well as chemical concerns
if batteries are used.
•Harder to move electric
components around to make
it adaptable to multiple
pianos.
Jeff Adams
28
Mechanical Apparatus
Jeff Adams
29
Mechanical Apparatus
Jeff Adams
30
Mechanical Apparatus
Jeff Adams
31
Mechanical Apparatus
Jeff Adams
32
Mechanical Apparatus
Pros
Cons
•The components that go into a
mechanical system are cheap
since the machining cost are
donated by UT.
•A mechanical system will not
allow play of the Damper as well
as the Una Corda pedal with our
clients limitations.
•Reliable. You do not have to
worry about a battery dying or
have to find plug to power the
apparatus.
•It would have to be larger to
allow for all the transfers of
motion in the system.
•There is more feeling in the
operations so it is easier to play
the damper pedal correctly.
•Light weight since light weight
materials can be used and
heavy batteries are not needed.
•The forces used to depress the
pedals would have to be solely
supplied by the client. This may
become a concern if the client’s
condition worsens and they lose
more strength in their left foot.
Jeff Adams
33
Electric/Mechanical Apparatus
34
Electric/Mechanical Apparatus
35
Electric/Mechanical Apparatus
36
Electric/Mechanical Apparatus
Pros
Cons
•The Una Corda can be held down
electrically allowing the client use of
their left foot to use the damper pedal.
•Electric components are costly
making the cost of the over all
project higher.
•Having some electric components
makes it easier to use the fixture in a
range of pianos.
•Safety concerns with
electricity in the apparatus, as
well as chemical concerns if
batteries are used.
•By having one electric component
instead of two will use less power
making the user less reliant on large
batteries.
•Harder to move electric
components around to make it
adaptable to multiple pianos.
•Having the damper pedal controlled
by mechanical means allows for more
precise playing of the piano.
•Electrical components could
cause noise that would distract
from the sound of the piano.
•If no power supply is available the
majority of the functionality of the
apparatus would still be intact.
•Relying on electricity for part
of the design is a concern of
the client.
37
House of Quality
Importance
Electrical
Mechanical
Electrical/ Mech.
Light Weight
8
8
4
6
Size
7
6
4
5
Universal design
8
8
4
7
Damper is primary pedal
9
4
8
8
10
6
8
7
Tactile Response
8
1
10
10
Cost
6
4
7
6
Noise
9
4
6
5
334
420
442
Safety
38
House of Quality
Importance
Solenoids
Motors
Hydraulics/Pneumatics
Light Weight
8
8
2
1
Size
7
9
6
5
Universal design
8
8
6
2
Damper is primary pedal
9
5
5
5
10
9
7
5
Tactile Response
8
5
5
5
Cost
6
4
6
8
Noise
9
9
6
6
471
351
296
Safety
39
ROBUST DESIGN
Design that results in products or
services that can function over a
broad range of conditions
40
What does Robust Design
mean?





Plan for variability
Assess your capabilities
Design for manufacturing
Reduce costs
Practice!
41
Good Luck
with your designs!
42
Related documents
Download