Sustainable Power for Electrical Resources –SuPER

Cal Poly SuPER Project:
Progress Report and Plans
EE 563 Graduate Seminar
October 6, 2006
James G. Harris, Professor
EE Department and CPE Program
Cal Poly SuPER Project: Outline
• Background: rationale for project
• Progress Report for Last Year AY 05-06
• Plans for This Year AY 06-07
• Conclusion and Invitation to Join Project
Background - Electrification
• Electrification – National Academy of
Engineering’s top engineering
achievement for the 20th Century
• Estimated 1/3 of population (now, 6B) do
not have access
– Significant proportion of remainder does not
have reliable access to battery or grid
– 18,000 occupied structures on Navajo Nation
lack electrical power (2001 legislation)
Background - Significance
• Impact of electrification significant
– Transformation of Western world
• Thomas Hughes: Networks of Power
– People who caused change
– Social Impact – standard of living
• Recognized by National Renewable Energy
Laboratory in late 1990s
– Village Power Program
– Development of microfinancing
Background – Solar Insolation
• Goal to provide electrical resources to people in
underdeveloped countries
Leapfrog technology – no need for 100 years of
– Example of cell phone in Asia
• Review of global insolation map
– Poorest people ($1-2 a day income)
– Within plus or minus 30 degree of latitude
• Highest values of solar insolation (minimum W hr/sq m/day)
Background – DC Power
• Solar photovoltaic systems inherently DC
• History of DC (Edison) versus AC (Westinghouse
and Tesla) at end of 19th century
– DC versus AC for generation, distribution, and
– Initially, applied to lighting
• Lighting today
– 60W incandescent bulb and 20W compact fluorescent
bulb lumens
– Equivalent to 3W LED technology, and improving
Background – DC power loads
• Efficiency of electrical motors: few horsepower
– Permanent magnet DC motors
• Electrical appliances
Computer: 50W laptop (DC)
TVs, radios use DC power
RV 12V DC market: kitchen appliances
Portable power tools – battery powered (DC)
• Computers: wireless connection
– Internet, phone (voice over IP), TV, radio,
– Education: MIT Media Lab $100 laptop project
Background – Moore’s Law
• Stand-alone solar photovoltaic system
technology is mature, e.g., Sandia Handbook
Application of Moore’s Law to development of
SuPER system
– Solar cell development: commercial and research lab
• Estimate 5% per decade with base of 16% in 2005
• Implies 25% efficiency in 2025
– DARPA RFP: 1000 units of 50% efficiency
Commercial Module Range
Laboratory Cells
Histories of Silicon Photovoltaic Module and Cell Efficiencies
Ref.: Martin A. Green; "Silicon Photovoltaic Modules: A Brief History of
the First 50 Years"; Prog. Photovolt: Res. Appl. 2005; 13:447–455
(Published online 18 April 2005 in Wiley InterScience
( DOI: 10.1002/pip.612)
April Allderdice and John H. Rogers; Renewable Energy for
Microenterprise; National Renewable Energy Laboratory; November
Antonio C. Jimenez, Tom Lawand; Renewable Energy for Rural Schools;
National Renewable Energy Laboratory; November 2000
Jonathan O.V. Touryan and Kenell J. Touryan; Renewable Energy
for Sustainable Rural Village Power; Presented at the American
Scientific Affiliation Conference Arkansas August 1, 1999
National Renewable Energy Laboratory
Background – Solar and DC Power
• Conclusion
– Solar photovoltaic is poised for leapfrog
• Many development tools available
• Expectation of future efficiencies
• Sustainable power source
• Digital control of standalone system
– DC is power of future
• Decentralized
• Matched to source and loads
Background: Overall Cal Poly
SuPER System Goals
– Design lifecycle of 20 years
– Total Cost: less than $500 for 1 sq m PV
module including battery replacements
– Mean time between failures (MTBF): 25 years
– Mean time to repair (MTTR): 1 hour
– Power depends on PV efficiency and battery
storage capacity
Why? Broader Impact of SuPER
• Provides family owned electrical power source
– Only electrical power source for family
– Increasing power resource with time
– With financial business plan: $2-3 per month for all
electrical power needs
• Decentralized, sustainable development of
electrical power in poorest countries
SuPER system potential resource for raising
standard of living of poorest to par with rest of
Background: Five Year Plan for
– Five years for completed design,
development, and field testing
• Includes business plan, documentation and
– First three years for prototype development
• Three generations at one year for each
– Last two years for field testing
• Establishing contacts overseas now
Progress Report: Technical
Description of SuPER System
Prototype Development Phases
• Phase 00: use of existing donated PV module (150W) PV system
• Phase 0: cart mounted system
• Phase 1: cart system with
– Laptop computer with USB i/F to sensors
– Linux OS
– Cart for packaging
• Phase 2: cart system performance testing/design enhancements
• Phase 3: packaging/manufacturability goals
– Port software/electronics to FPGA with microprocessor
• Phase 4: system testing/preliminary field testing
Summary -Progress Report:
AY 05-06
• Cal Poly SuPER project lab established in 20-101
• Development phases 00, 0 , and 1 planned
• Phase 0 implemented resulting in 1 thesis and 3
senior projects by end of Summer
BUS 454 (Spring 06) senior project team
develops business/marketing plans: 4 senior
Foundation provided for future development of
phase 1 prototype
Eran Tal working with prototype SuPER System – June 2006
SuPER Development Team
Weekly Seminar Meeting in Power Senior Project Room (20-101)
SuPER Project Laboratory
Cal Poly SuPER Project - Spring 2006
SUPER prototype cart with solar panel, battery, instrumentation and control subsystems
Members present in photo: (left to right) Eran Tal, Eric Phillips, Gustavo Vasquez,
Alexander Gee, Jennifer Cao, Sam Muehleck, Dr. Jim Harris, Dr. Taufik, Tyler Sheffield,
Dr. Ali Shaban; Members missing: Dr. Ahmad Nafisi, Robert Johnson
Prototype SuPER System Cart protection and load distribution
12V DC service panel with five load circuits (four in service)
Prototype SuPER System Cart bottom shelf
12V DC 1/4HP motor load and 12V battery
Prototype SuPER System Cart top shelf view
Laptop computer, interface circuits, MX-60 controller
Prototype SuPER System Cart left side switchboard enclosure
Main switchboard (bottom) and PV switchboard (top left)
Prototype SuPER System Cart right side view
Comparison of Open Loop and
Phase 00 Systems
Plans for This Year AY 06-07
• Recruit new Cal Poly Super Team
– Initial meeting this past Wednesday
• Develop and test the Phase 1 Prototype
– All Cal Poly fabrication except for PV and
• Continue effort initiated by BUS 454
– Work with consumer community
Plans: Research Opportunities
Available on Cal Poly SuPER Project
• Undergraduates and graduates: EE, CPE
– Graduate students provide leadership/thesis
– Undergraduates work on senior project
– Others invited
• Design/development team environment
– Weekly seminar meetings with faculty
• Funds available to purchase materials and
components for students
Plans: Some Research Areas for
Student Projects
• Simulation of system with MatLab/Simulink: digital
control algorithms
DC-DC converter development: PV to battery, DC output
bus to LED lighting
Printed circuit board development: PCBExpress on-line
design and fabrication
Battery and ultra-capacitor technology: electrical power
storage research and modeling
Modeling of DC loads: white LED lighting, DC motor,
battery charging, refrigerator
Power distribution and protection: NEC code compliance
Plans: Some Research Areas for
Student Projects (continued)
• Sensor data acquisition and processing: voltage,
current, temperature and sun insolation
System engineering: PV input modeling and DC
output load scenarios for testing
PV array modeling: study of technology and
maximum power point tracking algorithms
White light LED system development
DC motor characterization and load performance
Plans: Interested in Participating?
• Check out SuPER website:
Announcement of opportunities
White Paper
Graduate Seminar Presentation
Senior Projects
• Visit with faculty involved:
– EE: Jim Harris, Ahmad Nafisi, Ali Shaban, Taufik
– OCOB: Doug Cerf, Norm Borin
Cal Poly SuPER Senior Projects and
Thesis (available at SuPER website)
Eran Tal, "SuPER System Prototype Design and Implementation",
July 2006 (pdf file)
Senior Projects:
Tyson DenHerder, "Design and Simulation of Photovoltaic SuPER
System using Simulink", March 2006 (pdf file)
Gustavo Vasquez Jr., "Data Acquisition and Sensor Circuits for the
SuPER Project", June 2006 (pdf file)
BUS 454 Client Report Presentation - June 2006 Student Team Jessica Hickey, Richard Huskey, Heather McGinnis, Nick
McMillan; Faculty Supervisor -Dr. Lynn Metcalf (PowerPoint)
Alexander Gee, "Printed Circuit Board Design and Construction for
hte SuPER Project", August 2006 (pdf file)
1. George Constable, Bob Somerville; A Century of Innovation: Twenty Engineering Achievements
that Transformed our Lives; National Academy of Engineering; 2003; overview available at
2. Jonathan O.V. Touryan, Kenell J. Touryan; "Renewable Energy for
Sustainable Rural Village Power"; Presented at the American Scientific Affiliation
Conference Arkansas August 1999, available from NREL as NREL/CP-720-26871
[hybrid system for nrel village power program report
3. Begay-Campbell, Sandia National Laboratories; "Sustainable Hybrid System Deployment with
the Navajo Tribal Utility Authority"; NCPV and Solar Program Review Meeting 2003 NREL/CD-52033586 Page 541; available at [estimated date
2003, describes program resulting from "On November 5, 2001, President Bush signed the Navajo
Nation Electrification Demonstration Program (Section 602, Public Law 106-511) into Law. This
law directs the Secretary of Energy to establish a 5-year program to assist the Navajo Nation in
meeting its electricity needs for the estimated 18,000 occupied structures on the Navajo Nation
that lack electric power."]
4. Thomas P. Hughes; Networks of Power: Electrification in Western Society, 1880-1930;
Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1983
5. Thomas P. Hughes; American Genesis A Century of Invention and Technological Enthusiasm
1870-1970; Penguin Books; 1989
6. David Nye; Electrifying America Social Meanings of a New Technology, 1880-1940; MIT Press;
7. Antonio C. Jimenez, Tom Lawand; "Renewable Energy for Rural Schools"; National Renewable
Energy Laboratory; November 2000
[report from village power program at nrel – covers all renewable sources]
8. April Allderdice, John H. Rogers; Renewable Energy for Microenterprise; NREL: November
2000; available from
[microfinance introduction for renewable energy in underdevelopment countries]
9. Ulrich Stutenbaumer, Tesfaye Negash, Amensisa Abdi; "Performance of small scale
photovoltaic systems and their potential for rural electrification in Ethiopia"; Renewable Energy
18 (1999) pp 35-48
[authored by locals, but dated – example of early recognition of possibilities]
10. Sunwize Technologies;; insolation map available at
[on-line catalog and interactive planning support; global insolation map]
11. Evan Mills; "The Specter of Fuel-Based Lighting"; Science; v. 308, 27 May 2005, pp 12631264
12. E. Fred Schubert, Jong Kyu Kim; "Solid-State Light Sources Getting Smart"; Science; v. 308,
27 May 2005, pp 1274-1278
13. Thurton, J.P. and Stafford, B; "Successful Design of PV Power Systems for Solid-State Lighting
Applications"; Fourth International Conference on Solid State Lighting; 3-6 August, 2004, Denver.
Colorado / Proc. of SPIE; v. 5530; 2004; pp284-295
[mainly lessons learned]
14. MIT Media Lab;
15. Sandia National Laboratories, Solar Programs and Technologies Department; Southwest
Technology Development Institute, New Mexico State University; Daystar, Inc., Las Cruces, NM;
"Stand-Alone Photovoltaic Systems: A Handbook of Recommended Design Practices"; Sandia
National Laboratories, SAND87-7023 Updated July 2003
[revised handbook first published in 1988]
16. Kyocera Solar, Inc., Solar Electric Products Catalog , August 2005
[available on web – prices for small modules only]
17. IEA PVPS International Energy Agency Implementing Agreement on Photovoltaic Power
Systems Task 3 Use of Photovoltaic Power Systems in Stand-Alone and Island
Applications Report IEA PVPS T3-09: 2002 "Use of appliances in Stand-Alone PV Power supply
systems: problems and solutions; September 2002
[dos and don'ts for design]
18. Alison Wilshaw, Lucy Southgate & Rolf Oldach; "Quality Management of Stand Alone PV
Systems: Recommended Practices" IEA Task 3,
[another report of iea agreement]
19. Martin A. Green; "Silicon Photovoltaic Modules: A Brief History of the First
50 Years"; Prog. Photovolt: Res. Appl. 2005; 13:447–455 (Published online 18 April 2005 in Wiley
InterScience ( DOI: 10.1002/pip.612)
[history and use of moore's law with darpa rfp; also figure]
20. Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) BAA05-21 posted Feb. 25, 2005 RFP—
Very High Efficiency Solar Cell (VHESC) program announcement with deadline on 3/29/2005,
which will be open at least a year from this date; see
• 21. H. Spanggaard, F.C. Krebs; "A brief history of the development of organic and
• polymeric photovoltaics"; Solar Energy Materials & Solar Cells 83 (2004) 125–146
• [overview in context of inorganic (si) pv's)
• 22. T. Givler, P. Lilienthal; "Using HOMER® Software, NREL’s Micropower Optimization
Model, to Explore the Role of Gen-sets in Small Solar Power Systems Case Study: Sri
Lanka"; Technical Report NREL/TP-710-36774; May 2005.
23. David L. King, Thomas D. Hund, William E. Boyson, Mark E. Ralph, Marlene
Brown, Ron Orozco; "Experimental Optimization of the FireFly. 600 Photovoltaic OffGrid System"; Sandia National Laboratories, SAND2003-3493 October 2003
[system and component test with ac inverter; measurement parameters; standards
and codes identified, e.g., grounding]
24. R. Akkaya*, A. A. Kulaksiz; "A microcontroller-based stand-alone photovoltaic
power system for residential appliances"; Applied Energy 78 (2004) 419–431;
available at
[microbased control, but focused on AC output]
• 25. Angel V. Peterchev, Seth R. Sanders; "Digital Loss-Minimizing Multi-
Mode Synchronous Buck Converter Control"; 2004 35th Annual IEEE Power
Electronics Specialists Conference Aachen, Germany, 2004
• [dc to dc for cell phone/computer using digital techniques]
• 26. Jason Hatashita, "Evaluation of a Network Co-processing Architecture
Implemented in Programmable Hardware." EE MS Thesis, February 2002;
available at
27. Homepage for Cal Poly Marketing Program: ; see client application in
lower right hand space
28. EE 460/463/464 Senior Seminar/Senior Project Handbook available at:]
29. Muhammad H. Rashid; Power Electronics: Circuits, Devices and
Applications(3rd Edition); Prentice-Hall; 2004