Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports Non-Classroom Supervision Northwest AEA March 24, 2011 Major portions of the following material were developed by: George Sugai and Rob Horner OSEP Funded Technical Assistance Center www.pbis.org In conjunction with The Iowa Department of Education Objectives List four components of active supervision Describe to a colleague one or more features of each component of active supervision List the five steps to teaching routines Provide two examples of nonclassroom interventions. What is a non-classroom (common) area? Any area of the school not under the direct and consistent supervision of one adult. Classroom vs. Non-classroom Classroom Teacher directed Instructionally focused Small # of predictable students Nonclassroom Student focused Social emphasis Large # of unpredictable students Non-classroom Settings Events in non-classroom settings affect classroom activities. Administrators must be continuously diligent. Planned teaching activities for desired behaviors must occur. Active supervision by all staff is key. All staff should be involved Recognizing appropriate behavior Delivering clear and consistent consequences for behavioral errors What are your behavioral expectations? Cafeteria Playground/choice areas Hallways Arrival & dismissal times Bathrooms Fieldtrips Does everyone know these expectations? Lunchroom and Playground Supervisors Volunteers Teachers Students Knowing the Expectations is good but isn’t enough Active Supervision Four Major Components of Active Supervision 1. Movement and Scanning 2. Using positives to reinforce expected behavior 3. Dealing with inappropriate and challenging behavior efficiently 4. Monitoring, analysis, and planning Keep close proximity with most students Move around through all areas Movement and Scanning Scan all areas frequently Talk to kids and recognize appropriate behavior Keep the 4:1 Rule in mind Make it positive Use the acknowledgement systems Pre-Correct Before problem behavior occurs Address problem behaviors quickly and consistently Dealing with Inappropriate Behavior Be respectful Use a calm voice and body language Pre-Correcting Problem Behavior “Pre-” means before; “-Correct” means after “Pre-Correction” means anticipating problem behavior and intervening beforehand Problem behavior is prevented Expected behavior replaces problem behavior Efficient Correction Procedures First - Least Disruptive More Intrusive Measures If behavior Persists Make correction and then focus on student(s) nearby exhibiting the expected behavior. Deliver the penalty or loss of privilege in a matter-of-fact manner Do not argue with the student about the details of the penalty WALK AWAY……………... WALK AWAY Do we have a problem? When is the problem occurring? Monitoring, Analysis, Planning Where are the problems occurring? What are the problems? Basics “Supervision Self-Assessment” YES or NO Source: Non-Classroom Management: Self-Assessment (Sugai & Colvin, 2004) Did I have at least 4 positive for each negative student contact? Have more positive student contacts than negative Use variety of contact forms Did I move continuously throughout area? Obvious Positive Interactive Unpredictable Did I scan frequently ? Head up Make eye contact Overt body position Did I positively interact with most students? Variety of interaction types Social positives & SW acknowledgements Variety of students Quick Noticeable Publicly appropriate Did I handle minor rule violations efficiently? Quickly Privately Neutrally Follow-up with positive Did I follow school-wide procedures for handling major rule violations? Quick By the book Business like Disengage Precorrect for next occurrence Do I know my school-wide expectations? Positively stated Small in number Easy Comprehensive Defined Did I positively acknowledge at least 5 different students for displays of SW expectations? Individualized Informative Sincere “Readers’ Digest” Guide 7-8 “yes” = Super Supervision 5-6 “yes” = So-So Supervision <5 “yes” = Improvement Needed What if that isn’t enough? You developed the expectations, you have taught/retaught the expectations, you have trained supervisors who are actively supervising…and you are still having problems. Evaluate Routines Are they clear? Have they been taught? Are they followed consistently by supervisors? What are some student routines/rules for these settings? Playground Cafeteria Dismissal Arrival Hallways Bathrooms Fieldtrips Examples Getting help Communicating with peers & adults Leaving the area Teaching Behavioral Routines 1. State behavioral expectations 2. Specify student behaviors (steps) 3. Model appropriate student behaviors 4. Students practice appropriate behaviors 5. Reinforce appropriate behaviors What if that isn’t enough? You developed the expectations, you have taught/retaught the expectations, you have trained supervisors who are actively supervising, you have taught routines…and you are still having problems. Do we have a problem? When is the problem occurring? Monitoring, Analysis, Planning Where are the problems occurring? What are the problems? Start with the data Features of Problem What behavior occurs? Where When is behavior most likely? is the behavior most likely? Who is most likely to perform the behavior? Why do students continue to perform this behavior? Look for the smallest change with the biggest effect Boost Acknowledgements and Rewards Change the physical environment where problem behaviors occur Change scheduling when/where problem behaviors occur Pre-Correct, Prompt, Remind students of expectations prior to entering a non-classroom setting. Re-teach expectations for some students Examples of Non-classroom Interventions (Re-teaching) Bus Line At one Iowa PBIS elementary school, SWIS data showed a problem with students in line for the bus. The teachers developed a funny skit involving teachers to demonstrate both inappropriate behavior and appropriate behavior. (Schedule Change): MS Lunch Schedule At one middle school there were on-going problems in the cafeteria during lunch across all three grade levels. The staff noticed the lunch room was very crowded and determined that they could break the 50 minute lunch period for each class into “first” lunch and “second lunch”, thus reducing the number of students in the cafeteria for lunch in half. (Schedule Change) Playground At another PBIS elementary school, SWIS data showed a problem on the playground with a group of students. They arranged an alternate recess for this group and provided physical skills assistance from the PE teacher and social skills assistance from the classroom associate. (Re-teaching) High School Their PBIS motto is : Be in the Right Place, at the Right Time, doing the Right Thing, with the Right People. After reviewing the school’s SWIS data, they determined that most ODRs were generated from the hallways/common areas. (Re-teaching) High School They had their afternoon speech and drama classes create short skits using the improper behaviors and the proper behaviors as they related to their "Rights" in the Hallways. During the scheduled speech/drama class, each skit was presented to the rest of classes meeting that period. To accommodate all the students, they divided the audiences into three groups and had them rotate through three centers in a class period. The other centers reviewed handbook changes and expectations in the cafeteria. (Pre-Correction) Entering School Following Recess One PBIS school reminds the early elementary age students of the hallway expectations as they are lined up at the end of recess. Students must demonstrate line behavior before entering the building. (Pre-teaching) Video At another Iowa PBIS school teacher have a DVD available to review behavioral expectations across all non-classroom settings. Teachers are encouraged to use the DVD to pre-teach expectations in specific settings where there students are experiencing more problem behaviors. (Boosting Rewards) Getting To Class On-Time Sixth graders at one middle school were having a problem being in the halls after the bell rang. They developed a system to monitor the percentage of students coming to each class on time each day. At the end of the quarter the team with the highest percentage of students arriving to class on time earned pizza and a movie. (Increased Supervision/Boosted Rewards) -- High School Lunch This high school was having difficulty with chaotic and disorganized lunch lines. Monitors were appointed during lunch time to specifically award “front of the line passes” to students displaying expected lunchroom behavior. One student is chosen to go to the front of the line and that student can choose someone else to go with them. Action Planning for Active Supervision What needs to be done? When will it be done? Who will do it? How does it become part of your discipline system? References Colvin, G., Sugai, G., Good, R., & Lee, Y. (1997). Effect of active supervision and precorrection on transition behaviors of elementary students. School Psychology Quarterly,12, 344-363. Sugai, George and Colvin Geoff. Non-Classroom Management: Self-Assessment. Center on Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports, University of Oregon, 2004.