Adapted Physical Education - Legislation and Definitions

Definitions, History and
Legislation for Change
disabilities are
restricted by access,
opportunity and
Adapted physical education is physical
education designed to meet the needs of
children with disabilities. It is a service that
children receive not the placement (Lieberman,
Adapted physical education programs are those
that have the same objectives as the regular
physical education program, but in which
adjustments are made in the regular offerings to
meet the needs and abilities of exceptional
students (Dunn, 1997).
Based on your beliefs and values:
All individuals at all ages can benefit from physical
All individuals can learn when adaptations are
incorporated into instruction.
All individuals deserved access to high-quality
instruction that enhances self esteem and contributes
to a healthy lifestyle.
Physical Education followed the Medical Model
(1900 – 1950)
Students with disabilities did not participate in
Physical Education or they were placed in corrective
physical education, specifically students with physical
Many students with cognitive or behavioral disabilities
were in institutions and participated in recreational
activities if physically able.
Medical model sees deficits, activity is to fix
what is wrong. The approach is low achievement
expectations. (Not going to get better)
Social model views acceptance of difference.
Sees ability to learn and improve. Looks for
possibilities of what can be.
A state-supported institution for children with
intellectual disabilities. The school was
designed for 4,000, but by 1965 it had a
population of 6,000. At the time it was the
biggest state-run institution for people with
mental disabilities in the United States.
Conditions and questionable medical practices
and experiments prompted Senator Robert
Kennedy to call it a "snake pit.".
Public outcry led to its closure in 1987, and to
federal legislation protecting the disabled
Willowbrook The Last Great Disgrace 1972 by
Geraldo Rivera
Video: Youtube
Provided grants to states to initiate, expand and
improve educational programs for children with
Created the Bureau of Education for the
Most schools continued to avoid offering
Section 504. Reinforces the right of students
with disabilities to participate in physical
education courses, fitness assessment,
interscholastic athletics, and intramural or club
If students cannot fully or safely participate
comparable opportunities must be offered.
First national law requiring free appropriate
public education (FAPE) to all students with
disabilities ages 3-21.
The law includes that Physical Education is an
academic area (a direct service) and should be
made available to all students with disabilities
through appropriate assessment, programs
designed to meet specific needs Individual
Education Program (IEP) and that the
programs occur in a least restrictive
environment (LRE).
The first consideration for placement for
children with disabilities is that they are
educated with typical children in the General
Physical Education program.
 The child needs specially designed physical
education as prescribed in the child’s
individualized education program.
Required states to expand educational
services to children from birth to age 5.
Developed and implemented early
intervention services for infants and
toddlers with disabilities.
Replaced the term handicapped with
Defined 13 categories of disabilities.
Physical Education is defined to include;
physical and motor fitness, fundamental motor
skills and patterns and skills in aquatics,
dance, and individual and group games and
sports (intramural and lifetime sports).
Civil rights law that enforces the
non-discrimination of persons with
Public or private employment
 Public accommodations
 Public services and programs
 Transportation
 Telecommunications (TDD)
Assures the right of all individuals with
disabilities to a free appropriate pubic
education (FAPE).
Age: Birth to 21 years
Early intervention for infants to 2 years
Preschool for ages 3-5
Transitional plan for age 14 to vocational
School accessibility
Shifts focus from opportunity to meaningful
learning that can be measured.
Requires progress reports for children with
disabilities that are the same as those for
children without disabilities.
Reinforces that special education is not a
place, rather a set of services to support the
needs of children with disabilities to succeed
in the general education classroom.
 Students
with disabilities have
access to the general curriculum
including Health and Physical
Education regardless of placement.
 Deaf-blindness
 Deafness
 Developmental delay
 Emotional disturbance
 Hearing impairment
 Intellectual disability
 Multiple disabilities
 Orthopedic
 Other health impairment
 Specific learning disability
 Speech or language impairment
 Traumatic brain injury
 Visual impairment including
Rosa's Law (Pub. L. 111-256) replaces the term
"mental retardation" with "intellectual disability".
The law is named for Rosa Marcellino, a girl with
Down Syndrome who was nine years old when it
became law, and who, according to President
Barack Obama, "worked with her parents and
her siblings to have the words 'mentally
retarded' officially removed from the health and
education code in her home state of Maryland."
 ]
On June 19, 2014, Governor Chris Christie
signed into law P.L.2014, Chapter.10, which
requires school districts to ensure that students
with disabilities have opportunities to
participate in athletic activities equal to those of
other students. This includes physical education
programs, existing classroom activities that
involve physical activity, and athletic sports
programs. New Jersey is on it way to providing
meaningful sports experiences for all New
Jersey’s students.
Full time General Physical Education,(GPE) no
modifications needed
GPE with adaptations
GPE with in class support by APE specialist,
paraeducator and/or peer.
Part time APE and Part Time GPE
Reverse Inclusion
Self – contained APE with a whole class or an
individual session. In Home or Separate school
Home school or Hospital setting
Teachers who teach students with disabilities
need to be:
 Accepting of Individual Differences
 Creative
 Organized
 Patient
 Supportive and Caring
 Responsible
 Flexible