Cotten NSF PI Meeting XO Poster 11-01-09 FINAL[1]

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SGER: Assessing the Educational, Career, and
Social Impacts of the XO Laptop Program in
Birmingham, AL City Schools
Shelia R. Cotten, Casey Borch, Michael Howell-Moroney, Betty Nelson,
Scott Snyder, Timothy M. Hale, LaToya O’Neal, William Anderson
University of Alabama at Birmingham
Introduction
Results
The goal of this study is to assess the educational, career, and social
impacts of disseminating an innovative technology, the XO laptop
computer, to minority 4th and 5th grade students in Birmingham City
Schools (BCS) in Alabama. This is the largest XO dissemination in the
U.S. and the first XO dissemination project to distribute XO laptops to all
1st – 5th grade students in a U.S. school district.
XO Usage
> 8 hours
12%
Figure 4. Change in Hours of ICT Use Per Day
Mean category of hours per day
7-8 hours
4%
0 hours
13%
5-6 hours
5%
3-4 hours
14%
1-2 hours
52%
2.5
1.87
1.68
1.51
Changes in Educational Intentions
• A small percentage of students reported a lower desire to go to
college and a lower belief that they will go to college
1
0.5
0
Internet***
Cell phone***
25%
Percent
27%
24%
10%
21%
16%
16%
16%
5%
Mean category of frequency
30%
27%
2.5
2
1.88
1.84
Tech
English
History
1.86
1.33
1.5
0.85
1
0.98
0.5
0
Do research***
Pre
Math
Next Steps
• Multivariate models addressing specific aims
• New NSF funded ICAC study – focusing on curriculum development
using XO laptops (DRL-0918216, Cotten-PI)
2.28
2.2
0%
Reading
Wilcoxon signed-rank test
*p<.05, **p<.01, ***p<.001
Study Limitations
• Timing of XO dissemination and post-test survey varied by school
• Response rates varied considerably by school and by teacher
• Will adjust for school and teacher level effects in future analyses
3
Surf web***
Never
Post
Game system***
Figure 5. Change in Frequency of Surfing,
Research, and Homework Uses of Computers
Figure 2. In which classes do you use the XO?
15%
2.54
2.39
2.27
2
1.5
Changes in Technology Usage
• Hours per day using ICTs increased between pre and post test
• Frequency using computers for research increased
• Frequency using computers for homework decreased
2.93
3
• Hours of usage per day increased significantly for each ICT type
• 13% of students report they do not use the XO
• 52% report using their XO's between 1-2 hours per day
• 35% report using their XO's 3 or more hours per day
Do homework***
Post
Edit Wiki pages*
Wilcoxon signed-rank test
*p<.05, **p<.01, ***p<.001
Science
• Frequency of using a computer to surf the web, do research, and edit
Wiki pages increased between pre and post test
• Frequency of using a computer to do homework decreased between pre
and post test
• The classes where the XO’s are most likely to be used are reading,
math, and technology
• 27% of students report they never use the XO in class
Methods
Funding
Design
• Natural experimental design
• Pre-test about 1 month prior to receiving the XO computer
• Post-test about 5 months after receiving the XO computer
Funding for this project was provided by The National Science
Foundation, SGER Grant #0819063, S. Cotten PI
Figure 3. Frequency of XO Application Usage
Figure 6. Change in Educational Intentions:
Do you want to, or think you will go to college?
Sample
• 4th and 5th grade students at the 39 Birmingham City Schools were
eligible to participate
• 27 out of 39 principals agreed to have their schools participate
• Only students who had completed the first survey were eligible to
participate in the post-test survey
Most frequent
Pre-test schools and students
• 27 participating schools
• 2,915 eligible 4th and 5th grade students
• N = 1,583 students
• 54% response rate
Least frequent
Journal
Chat
Record
Acknowledgements
want to go - pre
This study would have not been possible without the assistance and
efforts of many people. We would like to thank:
Scratch
want to go - post*
Memorize
•
•
•
•
will go - pre
TamTam
Measure
will go - post
TurtleArt
0%
Etoys
Survey Administration
• Surveys conducted between 2008 and 2009
• Paper and pencil, self-administered surveys
• Each survey was about 32 pages, 45-60 minutes to complete
3.35
3.5
Computer***
20%
Post-test schools and students
• 25 participating schools
• 1,472 eligible 4th and 5th grade students
• N = 1,259 post-test including pilot study students
• N = 1,201 students matched between pre- and post-test
• 81.6% of eligible students matched
4
Pre
Context
Larry Langford’s Vision – Mayor of Birmingham
• Begins mayoral term in January 2008
• Plan to decrease the digital divide in Birmingham and prepare
children for the future
• Spent $3 million to purchase 15,000 XO laptops
• Minimal training on how to use the XO’s was provided to teachers
and staff
Characteristics of Birmingham City School (BCS) District
• > 95% African American students
• High poverty school district – 80% free/reduced lunch
• 11,500 students in 1st – 5th grades
• 39 elementary schools
XO Usage Summary
• 52% report using their XO's between 1-2 hours per day
• 35% report using their XO's 3 or more hours per day
• Most likely to use XO’s in reading, math, and technology classes
• 27% report never using the XO's in their classes
• Most frequently reported used applications = journal, chat, and record
Changes in Technology Usage
Figure 1. Hours Per Day Using the XO
Background
• Since 1995, concern about “digital divides” in technology usage
• Sociodemographic factors are predictors of digital divides in Internet
access, types of Internet usage, and digital literacy skills
• Students in poor, urban areas have lower levels of technology usage
than those from more affluent areas
• Students who lack technological skills will be less able to fully
participate in society and to realize the potential for technology to
enhance their academic and future employment opportunities
Goals and Specific Aims of Project
1. Determine technology usage levels and types prior to XO
dissemination
2. Determine impact of XO dissemination on technology usage levels
and types 6 months post XO dissemination
3. Determine if change in technology usage levels and types are
related to education and career intentions
4. Determine how technology usage affects social connections,
belonging, personal expression, freedom, and accomplishment
Conclusions
Acoustic Tape Measure
0%
never
once a wk or less
20%
40%
2-3 times/wk
60%
80%
100%
almost every day or every day
• About 39-45% of students report using the Journal, Chat, and Record
applications on the XO almost every day or every day
• Over 50% of students report they have never used TamTam, Measure,
TurtleArt, Etoys, or the Acoustic Tape Measure applications on the XO
10%
20%
30%
40%
no
maybe
50%
yes
60%
70%
80%
90%
Birmingham City School System
Students, parents, teachers, and administrators in each school
Student volunteers
Undergraduate research assistants: Karen Harris, Megan Mitchell,
Brooke Williams, Marci Engel, Brittany Hammond, Carrie Robbins,
and Elliot Chong
100%
Wilcoxon signed-rank test
*p<.05, **p<.01, ***p<.001
Do you want to go to college?
• Students who said “yes” decreased from 94.2% to 91.7%
• The percentage of students who stated “maybe” increased from 4.1% to
6.5% at post test
Do you think you will go to college?
• Students who said “no” increased from 1.4% to 2.9%
• The percentage of students who stated “yes” increased from 86.5% to
87.1% at post test
Contact Information
Shelia R. Cotten, PhD
University of Alabama at Birmingham
Department of Sociology, HHB 460
1530 Third Avenue South
Birmingham AL 35294-1152
phone: (205) 934-8678
email: cotten@uab.edu
Twitter: @shelia_cotten
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