The Olympic Ideal & Modern Sport This chapter… How sports developed from 18th & 19th centuries How the British way of playing fair & to the letter of the law – ethics of sport – came about Sport is an important aspect of life within society Sport like society has gone through several clear stages popular recreation post - industrialisation Pre - industrialisation Pop Rec was a feature of life before industrialisation. It means ‘recreations for the populace’ Were all classes involved in the same forms of recreation? Upper classes – the aristocracy – played …….? Working classes – the peasants – played……..? When could the working classes play? Characteristics of early games like mob football Characteristics of early games like mob football Local, often rural disorganised / unstructured few/simple rules working class involved violent participants NOT spectators limited equipment/facilities played on festivals/holidays Based on force not skill Industrialisation Society began to change and so did sport! Leisure time was sparce. Why? Upper & middle classes unaffected by urbanisation & continued playing their sport Urbanisation affected sport WHY? Urbanisation affected sport No sporting rivalry No space Traditional sports had to change to suit new environment Machines dictated working hours – 6 day week (eventually reduced to 5 ½) Church on a Sunday- day of rest Poorly paid Lack of facilities What did middle-class factory owners & the church begin to do? What did middle-class factory owners & the church begin to do? Provided land & sports clubs/teams Saw benefits of improving morale & loyalty Improving health Means of social control Conditions gradually improved The improvement The effect it had on sport Five & a half day week Wages increased Railways developed & communications improved Competitions grew in size and so did spectator interest this lead to PROFESSIONALISM & INCREASED MEDIA INTEREST Five & a half day week Sport could be played (only by a few because of space) so main involvement was to spectate Wages increased Could afford to watch & play sport Railways developed & communications improved Assisted development of fixtures, competitions, leagues. Easier travel meant spectator sport blossomed The middle classes controlled sport. • Dictated leisure time • Used women & children for cheap labour – disease was common • Initially no parks & street games were illegal • Pubs were the cultural centre of the working population Sports were developed to suit this new environment Exam questions 1. Sports were rationalised in the 19th century English public schools. What is meant by the term rational recreation? (2 marks) 2. Why were the majority of sports rationalised in the 19th century? (4 marks) Exam questions 1. Sports were rationalised in the 19th century English public schools. What is meant by the term rational recreation? (2 marks) 1. (Played) regularly/often; 2. (Rules) – written/complex/sophisticated; 3. (Behaviour) – etiquette/codes of behaviour/civilised/fair play/sportsmanship; 4. (Highly Structured) – set times/number of players/boundaries; 5. (Skill) – refined/complex/developed. 2 marks 2. Why were the majority of sports rationalised in the 19th century? (4 marks) 1. Society becoming more civilised/manners/less violent; 2. Middle class were in control of society’s values/social control of working classes; 3. Industrialisation – need for disciplined workforce; 4. Era of social reform/philanthropists; 5. Mass of population needed entertaining; 6. Lack of space meant no room for old popular recreations; 7. Administration needed as more clubs/national governing bodies. Emergence of rational recreation Traditional aspects of popular sport (gambling/drunkenness)became less of a force because of the moralising influence exerted by the middle classes via the developing traditions of public school education What did middle class sport entail? Why did the middle classes take part in sport? 3 major contributions to the emergence of rational recreation: 1. 2. 3. Codification Rules permit you to compete on equal terms Major influence came from the public schools where sports were promoted as a means of providing boys with discipline The boy then took these rules with them to university & the armed forces – where they established sports clubs The leaders of these clubs lead to an agreed set of rules which led to the formation of NGB’s – what did this do? Sport & PA was the British dominance in the world in terms of industrialisation British way of life went to Europe and further afield • European & South American football & athletic clubs were soon developed for the British travelling abroad – however the locals began enjoying these new games • In far-flung corners of the world British dominance was evident – armed forces, British missionaries, engineers & administrators Exam question How did the 19th century public schools and universities influence the development of games and their spread into wider society? (4 marks) Why was participation in sport by the working class delayed compared with participation by the middle and upper classes in the 19th century? (3 marks) Development of games 1. Developed rules/boundaries/playing numbers/facilities 2. Competitions/House/inter-school 3. Training/coaching 4. Skills/tactics / strategies 5. Leadership/captain 6. Kit to define teams 7. Ethics/morals/muscular/Christianity/athleticism Must relate to Universities or beyond to credit 8. Acted as melting pots 9. Codification 10. More variety 11. Higher standards Spread into society 12. Factory /church teams 13. Provided facilities . employers/church 14. Officers to troops 15. British Empire . across the world/diplomats/politicians 16. Old Boys/ Old Girls network 17. Clubs/governing bodies 18. Teachers to schools 1. Little leisure time/had to wait for leisure time e.g. Wednesday half day/little disposable income; 2. No facilities of their own/little public provision; 3. Traditional activities lost in urban areas (eg mob football)/legislation/banning; 4. Lack of space for mass of population; 5. No schooling until 1870/then only drill/no sport or recreation focus; 6. Poor health of population/little energy; 7. NGBs/administration was controlled by upper/middle classes. Home learning Read chapter 17 Answer Q’s on page 251 Revise – Revise - Revise Public school influence on sport & the gentleman amateur QUICK QUIZ Who were public schools for? What was the aim of the schools? What personal qualities were encourage in the schools? What is athleticism? After the public schools men went to university what did they do? QUICK QUIZ Who were public schools for? Fee-paying middle & upper classes What was the aim of the schools? Produce further generations of men who would guide the government and industry of the UK and the developing empire What personal qualities were encourage in the schools? Leadership, loyalty, courage, discipline & commitment What is athleticism? A fanatical devotion to sport that developed physical, social & moral aspects of young men After the public schools men went to university what did they do? Returned to school to teach or entered the clergy Professional or amateur? What's the difference between the two? Individuals who played wanted to keep a class divide and they used sport as a means of social control The distinction between professional & amateur was enforced through strict rules about membership Gentlemen amateur – a sportsmen who, because of his social position & financial situation, had no need for monetary reward from participating in sport pictures The upper classes not only managed to play sports the way they wanted, but they also managed to keep the working classes out of their sport Football was different? After realising that the better players were unable to take time off work to play and that clubs had sufficient spectators to be able to pay players, the amateur football administrators had to accept professionalism in 1885 when the football league was established. Chruch Teams – Fulham, Aston Villa, Birmingham city Workplac Teams – Man Utd, West Ham Utd, Arsenal School Teams – Blackburn Rovers, Sunderland, Leicester City Differences between class was never more apparent in this period Upper & middle classes becoming more affluent whilst working classes become more impoverished Until late into the 20th century the following generalisations were made: Professional performers – working classes Agents/mangers/promoters (the businessmen) – middle classes Sponsors/patrons – upper classes The rise in media Income of the various agencies has increased Those sports where amateurs & professionals coexist – the professional tends to play at a higher standard Increased status of professional sportspeople – role models/media personalities Now people aspire to emulate their sporting heroes – may be because of financial rewards but also for the social mobility that is much more possible today Exam questions Sport became more structured, organised and available in post-industrial Britain. The Figure identifies the characteristics associated with post-industrial Britain. Development in transport and communication urbanisation Civilised lifestyle machine time state education Post-industrial Britain Emergence of middle class More law and order (i) Outline the impact of the following on the development of sport; development in transport and communications emergence of middle classes. (5 marks) Development in transport& communications Middle Classes Rail allowed transport of teams and spectators/horses/spectator sport increase; 2. Competitions became regional and national/leagues; 3. Access to countryside / rambling / fishing/ climbing; 4. Roads development in cycling clubs; 5. Spread knowledge of sporting heroes/role models; 6. Gave moral focus to sport/rational; 7. eg abiding by rules/ etiquette; 8. Banned popular recreations etc mob football; 9. Organisers/ administers of sport clubs / competitions/ NGB/amateur; 10. Used sport as social control of w/c/works teams/time/rights; 11. Established their own sports for their own identity eg lawn tennis / cycling/more variety.