Reverse Inclusion - WCUGradAdaptedPE

Reverse Inclusion
By: Whitney Sharp, Leah Barcusky,
& Jenna Filipone
West Chester Univeristy
KIN 582
What is Inclusion?
• Students with disabilities participates in a typical
educational classroom setting in order to interact with
others and be included in the least restrictive
• Environment includes…
Academic Settings
• Time included in mainstream setting depends on the individual
child’s needs
• Amount of time student is in the inclusive
environment varies from child to child
Benefits of Inclusion
• Children with disabilities
Development of friendships
Enhanced self-respect
Sense of belonging
Peer models.
• Children W/O disabilities
• Increase awareness and
• Increase skill acquisition
• Gains in communication
• Development of friendships
• Sense of belonging
• ALL Students
• Develop respect for all
• Increase understanding of
other children’s needs
Challenges of Inclusion
Lack of quality staff
Difficulties trying to
meet the students’
unique needs in the
general education
Ways to “Include” Children with Disabilities
• Full Inclusion
• Children are full participants in a general education program
• Cluster
• A small group of children with disabilities is embedded
within a program for children who are typically developing
• Reverse Inclusion
• A small group of children who are typically developing is
added to a specialized program for children with disabilities
• Social Inclusion
• Children with disabilities are in separate classes but social
interactions opportunities are planned for children with
and without disabilities
Reverse Inclusion
• Is the process of including developing children in
a special education classroom.
• Providing peer interaction opportunities while
providing the support services by bringing the
classroom setting for a short period of time to
interact socially
Challenges of Reverse Inclusion
Finding student without disabilities to enroll in program
Funding for supplies for students who are not disabled
Transporting students who are not disabled on fieldtrips
Having to work with a large number of students
Time to planning for all
Training staff to properly facilitate inclusion interactions
Advantages of Reverse Inclusion
• No extra classroom/therapy room needed
• No collaboration is needed with GE teacher
• SE Teacher has control of schedule, activities and
• ALL students have better social development, more
empathy, and higher academic achievement
• ALL students develop friendships and enhances selfrespect
• Allows for peer modeling for students with disabilities
which increase skill achievement and communication
• Fosters friends for ALL students
Elements of Reserve Inclusion
• Administrator Support
• Inclusion and Collaboration
• Physical Environment
• Teaching Strategies
• Student Selection
Resources Needed
• Parents of children W/O disabilities willing to
• Support from administration
• Flexible Staff
• Staff who is willing to implement differentiated
Benefits of Reverse Inclusion
• Helps make lasting
• Motivate them to
improve their
communication skills
• Help increase success
rate on meeting IEP
social/emotional skills
• Improve their chances of
eventually joining an
inclusion setting
• Build friendships that
will last outside of the
• Learn how to get along
with students who are
different from them
• Help to combat
stereotypes and
embrace diversity and
Disability Sports- History
• Following WWII the demand for rehabilitation programs
• Sir Ludwig Guttman, believed that sports should be an
integral pat of rehabilitation programs
• Rehabilitation sport programs grew into recreational sports
and eventually competitive sports
• 1948- The Stoke Mandeville Games were held at The Stoke
Mandeville Hospital in England
• 1960- First Paralympics held in Rome
• 1960’s- Special Olympics
• Paralympics 2012
Disabled Sport Organizations
• International Wheelchair Rugby Federation- IWRF
• Cerebral Palsy International Sport and Recreation AssociationCPISRA
• International Blind Sports Federation- IBSA
• International Wheelchair Basketball Federation- IWBF
• International Wheelchair Amputee Sports Federation- IWAS
• United States Association for Blind Athletes- USABA
• International Committee of Sports for the Deaf - ICSD
• Special Olympics
Disability Sports vs. Adapted
• Adapted sports – traditional sports altered to meet the needs
of an individual with a disability
• Disability sports- sports created specifically for individuals with
• Disability sports: Sitting volleyball, Beep Baseball, Goalball,
wheelchair sports
Sit Volleyball
• Started in the
Netherlands- Paralympic
• Those eligible to play:
muscular, bone, joint,
and amputation
• Differentiated rules:
- A portion of the pelvis
must be in contact with
the floor at all times
- Net heights
Sit Volleyball in Action
• Sit Volleyball in Rwanda
Incorporating in general PE:
• All students are seated
• Lower a badminton net
• Minimal equipment needed- Rope, Ball, Tape
• USA vs. China
• Hans Lorenzen- 1946
• Blind sport- played by
athletes with visual
• Paralympic sport
• Teams of 3 attempt to
roll the ball past the
opposing team’s defense
• Equipment:
- Goaball
- Tactile Court
- Blind folds
• Goalball Germany vs Japan 2011
• Remember Me Drill: Spread in a square pass the ball in the
same sequence every time, call for ball by tapping
• Block It: Students stand in a circle around a blindfolded
student, trying to pass the ball past the blindfolded student
with the underhand Goalball roll
Incorporating in General PE:
• All students are blindfolded
• Students serve as line judges/ score keepers
• Nets are not necessarily needed
Beep Baseball
• Blind Sport- athletes with
visual impairments
• Many tournaments held
around the country each year
• Equipment Needed:
- Beep baseball
- Bases
- Bat
- Tee
- Blindfolds
• Similar rules used in baseball
• 6 positions
• Batter must reach the base
before the ball is fielded by an
Beep Baseball
• Beep Baseball
Incorporating into General PE:
• All students wear blindfolds
• Allow each team to bat an entire cycle
• Use students as pitchers/ spotters
• Students in the field wear helmets as well
Wheelchair Sports
• Wheelchair soccer:
- Played by individuals with physical
- Played on a basketball court
- Manual/ electric wheelchairs
• Wheelchair rugby:
- Murderball
- USA- Quad Rugby
- Handball, basketball, and hockey
- Use manual sports chairs made
specifically for gameplay
• Wheelchair basketball:
- Paralympic sport
- Similar rules to basketball
- Only touch wheels twice after
dribbling or receiving a pass
Wheelchair Sports cont…
• Wheelchair Basketball
• Call It Out Drill: Passes as you move down the floor
Incorporating into General PE:
• Borrow wheelchairs for use
• If no chairs are available use office chairs
• Adapt rules as needed
Building Bridges. (2012) Inclusion-Reverse Inclusion. Retrieved on February 10, 2013 from
Davis, Ronald W. (2011). Teaching Disability Sport. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.
Inclusion Collaborative. (2008). Reverse Inclusion. Retrieved on February 10, 2013 from www.sccoe
Rafferty, Yvonne & Kenneth W. Griffin. (2005). Benefits and Risks of Reverse Inclusion for Preschoolers with and without
Disabilities: Perspectives of Parents and Provider. Journal of Early Intervention, 2005, Vol. 27, No. 3, 177-192
Schoger, Kimberly D. (2006). Reserve Inclusion: Providing Peer Social Interaction Opportunities to Students Placed in SelfContained Special Education Classrooms. TEACHING Exceptional Children Plus, 2(6) Article 3. Retrieved February 10, 2013