Life Span, Development, and Diversity By: Greg Bohall M.S., C.R.C., CADC-II & Michelle Garcia, B.A. The Classic Debate… Nature vs. Nurture Nature/genetic factors Nurture/environmental factors Extent to which individual differences in complex traits in a population are due to genetic factors. Ex: Intelligence and Personality. Extent to which the environment plays a role in our development. Ex: Athletic ability Discussion: Does athletic ability have nature or nurture factors? (Berk, 2007) The Classic Debate (continued)… Many investigators believe that nature and nurture are inseparable and work together. Genetic-Environmental Correlation: our genes influence the environments to which we are exposed. Passive: Child has no control and parents provide environments influenced by their own heredity. Ex: Athletic parents emphasizing outdoor activities, swimming, etc. Evocative: Children evoke responses that are influenced by the child’s heredity and the responses strengthen the child’s original style. Ex: Active, friendly baby more likely to receive attention than a passive, quiet infant. (Berk, 2007) The Classic Debate (continued)… Active: As children extend their experiences beyond the immediate family, freedom increases, and they actively seek new environments. Niche-picking: the tendency to actively choose environments that are complementing our heredity. Famous niche-pickers Laila Ali (Muhammad Ali) Jaden Smith (Will Smith) George Bush Jr. (George Bush Sr.) Liv Tyler (Steven Tyler) (Berk, 2007) Erikson’s Psychosocial Theory of Development At each stage, there is a basic psychological conflict which is resolved along a continuum from positive to negative, which determines healthy or maladaptive outcomes at each stage. “Normal” development must be understood in relation to each culture’s life situation. (Berk, 2007) Erikson-Infancy Stage 1: Basic Trust vs. Mistrust (Birth-1 year) Takes place during infancy. When care is generally sympathetic and loving, the psychological conflict is generally on the positive trust side. The trusting infant expects the world to be good and is confident in venturing out and exploring. The mistrustful baby cannot count on kindness and compassion from others so they withdraw from people. (Berk, 2007) Erikson-Toddlerhood Stage II: Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt (1-3 years) When parents provide young children with suitable guidance and reasonable choices, this stage is resolved favorably. A self-confident, secure 2-year-old has been encouraged (eating and toilet training) and not criticized or attacked when failing at new skills. An over or under controlling parent is likely to be in other aspects of the toddler’s life as well therefore the child feels forced or shamed and doubts their ability to act competently on their own. (Berk, 2007) Erikson-Early Childhood Stage III: Initiative vs. Guilt (3-6 years) Children begin to initiate their own activities and feel accomplished and become purposeful. If child is not allowed or punished for their own initiative they will develop a sense of guilt in their attempts of being independent. If parents encourage this initiative, the child’s exploration will lead to the identification of activities with peers and discoveries. (Berk, 2007) Erikson-Late Childhood Stage IV: Industry vs. Inferiority Children learn to develop knowledge and success at activities their parent or guardian values If child does not develop the knowledge and success they feel inferior A child who is unsuccessful of his father’s favorite sport, football, may feel inferior to his brother who is one of the better players on their team (Cole, Cole, & Lightfoot, 2005) Erikson-Adolescence Stage V: Identity vs. Role Confusion (Adolescence) Identity is a major personality achievement of adolescence and is a crucial step towards becoming a productive and happy adult (Berk, 2007). Adolescents begin to develop an identity as part of their social group(s) (Cole, Cole, & Lightfoot, 2005). Adolescents who are unable to identify themselves may have confusion towards who they are or what they want to do in life (Cole et. al., 2005). (Berk, 2007; Cole, Cole, & Lightfoot, 2005) Erikson-Early Adulthood Stage VI: Intimacy vs. Isolation (Early Adulthood) The person’s thoughts and feelings about making a permanent commitment to an intimate partner (Berk, 2007) Young adults begin to develop intimate relationships (Cole, Cole, & Lightfoot, 2005). For those who have an absence of these relationships, they feel that they are at risk of loneliness or isolation (Cole et. al., 2005). (Berk, 2007; Cole, Cole, & Lightfoot, 2005) Erikson-Middle Adulthood Stage VII: Generativity vs. Stagnation (Middle Adulthood) Adult wants to feel productive in their work and start creating a family (Cole, Cole, & Lightfoot, 2005). Generativity involves reaching out to others in ways to guide the next generation (Berk, 2007). Stagnation involves the person becoming self-centered or selfindulgent due to attaining certain life goals (marriage, children, career success, etc.) (Berk, 2007). Adults who are unsuccessful or unhappy with their job and/ or performance they feel a sense of stagnation (Cole et. al., 2005). Adults who have not started creating their family also feel stagnation (Cole et. al., 2005). (Berk, 2007; Cole, Cole, & Lightfoot, 2005) Erikson-Late Adulthood Stage VIII: Ego Integrity vs. Despair (Late Adulthood) Older adults begin reflecting on their past experiences to determine whether they have lead a meaningful life (Cole, Cole, & Lightfoot, 2005). Adults who have the sense of integrity feel whole, complete, and satisfied with their achievements (Berk, 2007). Those who have unachieved goals, regrets or ill-spent lives despair on their past experiences and life (Cole et. al., 2005). (Berk, 2007, Cole, Cole, & Lightfoot, 2005) Vygotsky’s Sociocultural Theory Addresses the cultural context of people’s lives. The sociocultural theory focuses on how culture is transmitted to the next generation. Culture: values, beliefs, customs, and skills of a social group. Social interaction is necessary for children to acquire the ways of thinking and behaving that make up the culture of the community. The belief that adults are more expert peers to help children master culturally meaningful activities. (Berk, 2007) Vygotsky’s Sociocultural Theory (con’t) Zone of Proximal Development Began examining the impact of the parent-child interaction. Zone: gap between what a child can accomplish independently versus what a child can accomplish when they are assisted by another who is competent in the activity. Proximal: “nearby”, the assistance that is provided should be slightly above the child’s current competency level. (Cole, Cole, & Lightfoot, 2005) Freud-Psychosexual Theory Oral: First year Mouth is focus of pleasurable sensation (sucking). Anal: Second year Anus if focus of pleasurable sensations (elimination). Phallic: 3-6 years Develop sexual curiosity and obtain gratification when they masturbate (sexual fantasies about parent or opposite sex, feel guilt about fantasies). Latency: 7-adolescence Sexual urges are submerged and focus is placed on mastering skills valued by adults (“cooties”, sports). Genital: Adolescence Have adult sexual desires and seek to satisfy them (“truth or dare”). (Cole, Cole, & Lightfoot) Diversity- Some definitions Ethnicity: categories of people who are distinctive on the basis of national origin (German, Italian, etc.). Race: categories that encompass different ethnic groups. Ethnicity attempts to capture people’s actual practices White race: Italian, Irish, Swedish Focusing only on race hides important differences Sex: refers to males and females (chromosomal, anatomical, hormonal, physiological). Gender: socially constructed models associated with each sex. (Rosenblum & Travis, 2012) Diversity-Some definitions (con’t) Sexual Orientation: directionality of one’s sexual interests toward members of the same sex, the other sex, or both (Rathus, Nevid, & Fichner-Rathus, 2011). Social class: seldomly discussed so definition is not well developed. We almost never speak of ourselves in society in class terms as it is not a central category in America (Rosenblum & Travis, 2012). What are some other diversity areas? (Rathus, Nevid, & Fichner-Rathus, 2011, Rosenblum & Travis, 2012) References Berk, L. E. (2007). Development through the lifespan (4th Ed.) Allyn and Bacon: Boston, MA. Cole, M., Cole, S. R., & Lightfoot, C. (2005). In the beginning. The Development of Children (5th Ed.). Worth Publishers: New York, NY. Pp. 45-112. Cole, M., Cole, S. R., & Lightfoot, C. (2005). Infancy The Development of Children (5th Ed.). Worth Publishers: New York, NY. Pp. 113-278. Rathus, S. A., Nevid, J. S., & Fichner-Rathus, L. (2011). Human sexuality in a world of diversity (8th Ed.. Allyn and Bacon: Boston, MA. Rosenblum, K. E. & Travis, T. C. (2012). The meaning of difference (6th Ed.). McGraw Hill: New York, NY.