Ch. 19 The Industrial Revolution
A Revolution of another color
Dawn of the Industrial Age
• Started in Britain and was unlike most political
revolutions because it was a long, slow, uneven
• Production shifted from simple hand tools to complex
Manchester England 1890
Life Before and After T-chart!
Before: A Rural way of life
Most People worked the land using handmade tools.
Most people lived in simple cottages, in rural areas.
Made their own clothes and grew their own food.
They traded goods in nearby towns at outdoor markets.
They knew little of the world that existed outside of their
After: The City Life
• Many country towns and villages have turned into cities
and most people now live in cities.
• Most people bought clothes and food that someone else
• Traveling was much more common and convenient
thanks to the train and steam boat.
Agriculture Spurs Industry
• Improvements in farming led to a population
• Enclosures led to increase output (production of
crops) but decrease in a the labor required to
man the farms.
• Enclosure- process of taking over and
consolidating land formerly shared by peasant
farmers, resulting in larger farms.
• Because of enclosures farm workers left the
rural areas in search of work and landed in cities
where they could find jobs in factories.
Technology Becomes Key
• A key ingredient to the Industrial Revolution was
a new efficient power source.
• In 1712 the first coal powered steam engine was
developed to help pump water out of mines.
• In 1764 James Wyatt (a Scottish engineer) set
out to make improvements to the first steam
engine and after several years succeeded.
• Wyatt’s engine became a key power source
that fueled the Industrial Revolution.
Quality of Iron Improves
• In 1709 Abraham Darby used coal instead of charcoal to
smelt Iron which resulted in a less expensive and higher
quality iron.
• Iron was needed to build steam engines and would be used
more and more thanks to Darby’s method and production of
better iron.
19.2 Britain Leads the Way
Why Britain?
Natural Resources Abound
• Waterways and Ports (international access) made it
easy to move resources and goods.
• Coal was abundant
• Vast Supplies of Iron
• A less rigid society and social structure which allowed
for my scientific thinking and inventing.
• Available Work Force (population boom, out of work
farmers due to Enclosures!)
• Capitalists
• Beginning with the Slave Trade the business
class accumulated Capital. The slave trade
brought in investment capital.
• Capital- Money used to invest in enterprises (a
business organization such as shipping, mining or
• Capitalists were the “New Money” looked down
upon by the upper class.
• They took advantage of an opportunity to invest
and make money, sometimes at the cost of
Textile Industry
• When Britian first began trying to organize a
cotton cloth industry at home they developed the
Putting-out System (aka cottage industry.
• In this system cloth was produced in individual
homes, raw cotton was handed out to peasant
families who spun it into thread and then wove it into
cloth in their own homes.
• Under this method production was slow
• The first factories developed in this industry.
Inventions Improve Textiles
• Richard Arkwright patents the
Water Frame which is a
spinning wheel that can be
powered by water.
• These inventions created a
larger demand for raw cotton
which presented a new
• How to process raw cotton
faster. (Seeds had to be
removed by hand).
The Cotton Gin
• Eli Whitney created the
Cotton Gin which
quickly separated the
seeds from the cotton.
increased the availability
of raw cotton.
Transportation Improvements with
a Price
• Turnpikes – Private roads built by capitalists,
a toll is charged for using it.
• Canals – Artificial water ways created for
transporting goods, often build along side a
river/stream, or the existing river/stream is dug
• Makes transporting goods much cheaper despite the
fact that tolls are charged because these too are
built by capitalists.
Steam Engines Improve
• Steam Boats – Water travel no longer relies on wind or
currents and ships can move faster and across still
bodies of water.
• Steam Locomotive – These were not bound by rivers
and could go across large expanses of land much
quicker than by horse or foot.
• The first major rail line opened in England in 1830 and
ran between Manchester and Liverpool.
19.3 Social Impact of the Industrial
New Social Classes Emerge
• The Industrial Middle Class – Capitalists, those
who set the revolution in motion by investing in
inventions, technology and factories.
• These people came from various backgrounds,
merchants, skilled artisans and even some were
“Rags to Riches”.
• They lived well, had fancy clothes and material
goods and most did NOT sympathize with the
Women and Children
• Upper class (Nobles, Old Money)- Children
were looked after by maidservants and women
lived a life of luxury.
• Middle Class (Capitalists, Bourgeoisie, New
Money) – Woman did not work, but stayed home
and focused on raising their children
• Lower Class (working class)– Woman and
children were part of the work force often
working in factories or the children in mines.
Industrial Working Class
• Tenements – Multistory
buildings where
working class families
lived packed into tiny
• There was no running
water or sewage or
garbage disposal.
• Waste and garbage rotted
in the streets making
these very foul smelling
Workers Stage Futile Protests
• Labor Unions were illegal!
• Some secret unions did exist.
• Workers wanted change and improved conditions but
had no power, which led to frustration and occasionally
• The first Industrial Riots occurred between 1811-1813.
• Groups of textile workers known as the Luddites (a
labor organization), smashed textile machines and
burned factories. They usually operated at night and
wore masks.
Life working in a Factory
• Shifts were 12-16 hours 6 or 7 days a
• They could only take breaks when the
factory owners gave permission.
• Machines had no safety devices and
accidents due to exhastion were
frequent and resulted in the loss of
fingers, limbs or even death.
• Textile workers breathed in lint which
damaged their lungs.
• Injured and sick workers were fired with
no compensation.
• Factory workers were often women
because employers could pay them
less than men.
Life working in a Mine
• They were paid more than factory
workers but the conditions were also
much worse.
• Coal dust destroyed their lungs, they
worked in darkness and constantly faced
the risk of flooding, explosions and
collapsing tunnels.
• Women and children worked in mines
carrying heavy loads of coal on all fours
in narrow passages and climbed ladders
with heavy baskets of coal several times
a day.
Working Children
• Some children starting working
as young as FIVE years old!
(usually closer to 7).
• Their small size and nimble
fingers were put to use changing
spools in hot humid textile mills
and repairing hard to reach
• In mines they sat all day in the
dark opening and closing vents,
or hauling coal.
• Parents were used to the idea of
their children working on the
farm, and the wages the children
earned were needed to keep the
family from starving.
Child Labor Reform
• Child labor reform laws called the “factory acts”
were passed in the early 1800s.
• Reduced the workday of children to 12 hours
• And kept children under the age of 8 or 9 from
working in cotton mills.
• The laws were generally not enforced until the
Results of the Industrail Revolution
• People have debated since the 1800s whether the
Industrial Revolution was a blessing or a curse.
• The early days brought hardship but conditions
gradually improved.
• More jobs were created, and wages rose.
• In the long run there was a general rise in the
standard of living.
• Pg. 621 Friedrich Engles
19.4 New Ways of Thinking
Thomas Malthus
• British Economist who like
many other thinkers of his
day tried to understand the
rapid changes by looking
for natural laws that applied
to business and
• He discouraged
vaccinations because he
believed disease was a
natural and necessary
form of population
• In the early 1800s middle class business leaders
embraced laissez-faire.
• Adam Smith (The Wealth of Nations) the main
proponent of laissez-faire, believed it would
benefit all by reducing the cost of goods so
everyone could afford them.
• According to laissez-faire economists the
cure for poverty was an unrestricted market.
David Ricardo
• An influential British Laissezfaire supporter who did not
believe there was hope for the
poor working class.
• He wrote “Iron Laws of
Wages” in which he said a
wage increase would not
increase the standard of living
for the poor because they
would just have more children.
Jeremy Bentham
• British philosopher and
economist who
advocated utilitarianism.
• The idea behind
utilitarianism is “the
greatest happiness for
the greatest number”
• He believed all laws or
actions should be
judged based on if they
provided more
pleasure or pain?
Socialism Develops Opposite
• Laissez-fair focused on individual rights while
socialists focused on the good of society in
• Under socialism the people as a whole rather
than private individuals would own the
means of production, which would solve
• Grew out of the Enlightenment faith in progress
and human nature and its concern for justice.
• Early socialists who developed communities in
which all work was shared and all property was
owned in common.
• Believed that when there was no difference
between rich and poor all fighting would
• The name Utopians implied they were
impractical dreamers.
Karl Marx
• A German philosopher
who in the 1840s
formulated a new theory
“scientific socialism”.
• Teamed up with another
German philosopher
Friedrich Engles (whose
father owned an English
Textile factory) and wrote
“The Communist
• Published in 1848
• He theorized that economics where the driving
force in History and that history was a series of
class struggles.
• The Haves (Bourgeoisie) Vs. the Have Nots
• He despised capitalism because he believed
it created prosperity for a few and poverty for
• Marx predicted that a struggle between social
classes would result in a proletariat take over,
and a classless (communist) society in which all
means of production would be owned by the
community would be formed.
• He called for an international struggle to bring on
the downfall of capitalism and he urged “Workers
of the world, UNITE!”