Cone Bearing Plants: Characteristics

Plant Kingdom
Mosses, Ferns, Gymnosperms, &
Characteristics of Plants
• THINK! – What characteristics do all plants
have in common?
– Autotrophic; cells contain a Nucleus
– Cell Walls made of cellulose
– Chloroplasts to make food;
(chlorophyll is the green pigment)
• THINK! – What process do plants use to make
their food?
– Photosynthesis
• Watch the brain pop on photosynthesis.
As you watch, listen to learn the inputs
and outputs of photosyntheis.
• Ingredients for photosynthesis
– Water (H2O)
– Carbon Dioxide (CO2)
– Light (energy!)
• Products of photosynthesis
– Sugar (C6H12O6)
– Oxygen (O2)
Chemical Equation
Light Energy
Carbon Dioxide + Water
Sugar +
Mosses & Relatives: Examples
Mosses & Relatives: Characteristics
• Simplest plants
• These plants are nonvascular which means there are NO
tubes to transport food and water up and down through
the plant.
• Thus, they DO NOT grow tall and remain small & low to
the ground.
• They use spores to reproduce
• They DO NOT have true roots, stems or leaves
• They can be found on moist rocks, logs, & soil
Mosses & Relatives: Reproduction
• To reproduce, plants have 2 distinct stages
that repeat. This is called alternation of
• In one stage, the sporophyte produces spores
• This spore grows into the other stage called
the gametophyte. The gametophyte produces
the sperm and eggs.
• When sperm and egg unite this grows back
into the sporophyte.
Mosses & Relatives: Environmental
• Peat moss is used in gardening. It
helps the soil retain water.
Ferns & Relatives: Examples
I took a picture of a
Fiddlehead in the Kuranda
Rainforest of Australia!
Ferns & Relatives: Characteristics
• Has vascular tissue
– Xylem – tube like cells that conduct water upward
from roots to leaves
– Phloem – tube like cells that conduct food downward
from leaves to roots
• Has true roots, stems, leaves
– Roots: anchorage, storage, absorption
– Stems: supports and transports nutrients
– Leaves: main site of photosynthesis (light collectors)
• Uses spores to reproduce
• Habitat – moist area of forest floor
Ferns & Relatives: Reproduction
• Again, there are 2 distinct stages
• The one form (sporophyte) produces spores.
• The other form (gametophyte) produces
sperm and eggs.
• The form of the fern we usually see is the
sporophyte. The brown dots under the fern
fronds are spore capsules.
Ferns & Relatives: Environmental
• Ferns make great indoor plants.
• Ancient forests were made up mostly of ferns. Their remains
helped form our “fossil fuels”
Here I am in the
Kuranda Rainforest
of Australia! Look
at the size of these
Giant Ferns!
Cone Bearing Plants: Examples
Blue Spruce
California Redwood
Cone Bearing Plants: Characteristics
• Has vascular tissue
– Xylem – What does xylem conduct?
– Phloem – What does phloem conduct?
– Has true stems, leaves, and roots and thus
can grow very big
• Has Cones; also called gymnosperms
• Habitat – northern, mountain forests
(North America, Northern Europe, etc. )
Cone Bearing Plants: Reproduction
• The mature plant produces reproductive
structures called cones.
• Sperm and egg in the cones fuse to
produce a seed.
• This seed will grow into a mature
cone bearing plant.
Male Cone
Pollen + Egg
Female Cone
Cone bearing plants: Environmental
• There are several cone plants: spruces, firs,
redwoods, pines, cedars, junipers, etc.
• Why shouldn’t we chop down all our forests?
What other important purpose do they serve?
– Produces oxygen
Flowering Plants: Examples
Fruit trees
• Here I am in the
Kuranda Rainforest
next to the Great
Strangler Fig Tree!
The strangler fig is
the vine-looking
structure wrapping
around the tree. It
will continue to wrap
around the tree and
“strangle” it until
there is nothing left.
This plant is an
Look at the size of this
Satinay tree found during
my trip to Fraser Island.
The satinay tree is a
timber tree. The wood
was used to build
furniture and ships! This
tree is also an
Flowering Plants: Characteristics
• Has vascular tissue
– Xylem – What does xylem conduct?
– Phloem – What does phloem conduct?
– Has true stems, leaves, and roots
• Has flowers; also called angiosperms
• Habitat – very common; found in most
land areas
• Speaking of Roots…Check out these mangrove trees at Cape
Tribulation, Australia. Look at how they grow on the edge of the
sandy beach near the water’s edge. The root system is
important because it helps prevent erosion and therefore these
mangroves are environmentally protected!
Flowering Plants: Reproduction
• The mature plant has
reproductive structures called
• Sperm and egg in the flower
fuse to produce seeds
• This seeds will eventually grow
into a mature flowering plant.
• Watch this Brain Pop Movie on
“Plant Growth”
Flowering Plants: Environmental
• Plants improve the quality of human life
in many ways:
– Almost all fruit and vegetables are flowering
plants: corn, rice, wheat, fruit trees, other
grains, etc.
– Flowering plants are harvested for
medicines, perfumes, decorations, and
fibers for clothes (such as cotton)
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