Chapter 10

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Chapter 10
Western Expansion and the
National Policy
Focus Questions
What ideas of citizenship shaped Canada’s
western expansion?
 How did immigration shape the
demography and economy of western
Canada?
 What challenges did the immigration pose
for peoples already living in western
Canada?

Getting the West Ready for
Settlement
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In 1871, BC joined confederation and Canada’s
government promised a link to eastern Canada
via the railway.
The Canadian federal government was required
to negotiate treaties with the First Nations living
in the west because of the Royal Proclamation of
1763 and because the United States had
difficulty moving west.
Canada & the U.S, took two different
perspectives.
The United States fought with First Nations.
Canada took the peaceful way or were the
treaties just as unjust?
The Numbered Treaties

The treaties were numbered in chronological order beginning in
1871 and ending in 1921.
Treaties
Canadian Government
Perspective
 Treaties would
assimilate First
Nations .
 Government believed
they now “owned” the
land.
 Canadian government
put treaties in
writing—if it “wasn’t
in writing, it wasn’t in
the treaty.”

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First Nations
Perspective
Treaties would help
them adapt and
ensure their culture
survived.
First Nations people
didn’t have the same
understanding of the
word “own”. They
believed they were
sharing the land.
First Nations practice
was to do everything
orally.
Treaties
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Treaties promised the
First Nations
Education, health
care, reserves, rights
to hunt and fish,
farming assistance
and payments
Residential Schools
were a method to
force assimilation
upon the First Nations
by separating parents
and children,
disrupting their
connections to their
language, culture and
traditions.
Treaties
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By 1885 the railway
was complete and the
treaties were being
signed
The west was now
ready for change and
immigration.
Western Canada’s
population began to
soar while buffalo
began to decline.
Northwest Mounted Police

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Founded in 1873
following the
massacre of Nakoda
First Nations by
Canadian & American
traders. The traders
set up Fort Whoop
and began selling
alcohol and guns for
buffalo and furs.
First regiment of
NWMP was in
Dufferin, Manitoba in
1874.
Northwest Mounted Police
First headquarters was in Fort
Macleod.
 The NWMP quickly developed a trust
with the First Nations that allowed
the railway and settlers to come
west.

The National Policy
In the“Pacific Scandal” of 1873, John A.
Macdonald was accused of accepting
bribes in order to reward the railway
contract to CP Railway. They supported
Macdonald and the Conservative Party.
 After Macdonald lost the 1873 election, he
would come back to power in 1878 with
The National Policy as his election
platform.

The National Policy
Elements of the National Policy:
– Promote Canadian Identity
– Proposed that people buy Canadian
products regardless of price.
– Proposed a tariff on American goods
sold in Canada.
– Fulfill promise of railway to BC and help
take settlers west and their crops east.
– Settle the West by giving immigrants
free land. This would promote
settlement.
– The west would be the agriculture
capital of Canada.
Chinese Railway Workers
 Many of the Canadian Pacific Railway
workers were from China because they
provided a source of cheap labor.
 After the railway was built, they would move
to lumber and cannery industries.
 However, the Chinese faced extreme
discrimination wherever they went. They
were considered to be “non-citizens” of
Canada.
Chinese Railway Workers
 Eventually, Canada would attempt to restrict
Chinese immigration by passing laws that
required the Chinese to pay $50 to enter
Canada.
 This required payment to enter Canada was
called the “Head Tax.” Although it was a lot
of money at the time, many Chinese paid it
and continued to come to Canada.
 Canada would continue to increase the
“Head Tax” as immigration from China
continued.
 The railway would finally be completed in
1885 and connected Canada from sea to sea.
Impacts of Immigration
on Western Canada
Impacts of Immigration on
Western Canada
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In 1890 only 2 % of
Canada’s population
lived in the west.
To Wilfred Laurier,
(Prime Minister, July
1986), the growth of
the west became an
important priority to
make Canada strong
and protect against US
expansion.
Clifford Sifton
Clifford Sifton (Minister of the
Interior) began an advertising
campaign to attract
immigrants from the United
States and Britain but
excluded French speaking
countries such as France,
Switzerland or Belgium.
 Sifton placed posters in train
stations, fairs and offices to
show Canada’s incredible
farmland for free.

Immigrants Come to Western Canada
Sifton believed “British is best” and
especially wanted farmers to come
from Britain.
 However, the immigrants to Western
Canada would actually come from
many different ethnic groups.
 Many immigrants came from Eastern
Europe (Ukraine, Russia, Poland).
 Many people already living in
Western Canada were uneasy about
the massive immigration.

French Speaking Settlers
– French leaders
wanted
Canadiens and
Catholics to be
able to settle in
the west.
– Missionaries
were set up to
help recruit
French people to
come to western
Canada.
French Speaking Settlers
– French Speaking settlers worked to
establish communities such as
Beaumont and Morinville.
– Catholic schools were established for
French speaking people.
– These schools offered higher education
(ie: university level schooling) in French.
– Francophones were able to enter politics
with the creation of Alberta &
Saskatchewan in 1905.
French Speaking Settlers
– French speakers
founded
newspapers that
reported all levels
of news.
– Catholic hospitals
were founded
including the Grey
Nuns in Edmonton
(formerly the
Edmonton
General)
Eastern Europeans
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Contributed to the
economic and
industrial growth to
Canada’s west.
They provided new
markets for
manufactured
products.
They helped to
increase agricultural
production
Ukrainian Settlers
 Ukrainian
settlers
moved west
because of the
fertile soil.
 Population in
West:
 1896- 1 000
 1914- 200 000
Russian & Polish Settlers
Russian and Polish
immigrants settled
predominately in
cities.
 They started factories
mills and bee colonies.
 The coal mining
industry also
experienced growth.
 Because of the low
wages many would
join political groups or
create unions for
better working
conditions and wages.

Alberta & Saskatchewan
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In 1875 the federal government controlled
the land in the western territories.
An elected representation could only be
based upon populations of over 1,000
people.
In 1891 this elected assembly took over.
The group could control roads and schools
but could not tax to make money for other
projects.
Only provinces had the power to ask for
taxes from their inhabitants.
Alberta & Saskatchewan
Frederick Haultain, the Premier of
the North-West Territories
campaigned to have their own
provincial rights.
 Wilfred Laurier believed the area was
too large to be one province, so
Canada’s government split the land
into two provinces: Alberta &
Saskatchewan.
 These provinces were established in
1905.
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