Kingdom Monera 1_1_

Kingdom Monera
The most numerous
and widespread
kingdom on Earth.
What are monerans?
Here are some things that all members of
this kingdom have in common.
The are all prokaryotic. This means that their
cells lack a nucleus and other membrane bound
They are all unicellular, though may form clumps,
strands, chains or even layers and colonies.
They are asexual. They reproduce by binary
History of Monerans
This kingdom represents the most ancient type of
life on Earth.
They were around before there was any oxygen in
the atmosphere, in fact, they are responsible the
first atmospheric oxygen.
We will simply classify this gigantic kingdom in
this way.
Bacteria, which consists of both germs and cyanobacteria,
and the archaea, which are also known as extremophiles.
It is important to realize that
bacteria are everywhere.
Virtually every surface in this room
is covered by them.
You are covered with bacteria.
Bacteria even live inside our bodies,
but that is not necessarily a bad
Bacteria-Human mutualism
A certain type of bacteria, E.coli, are naturally
found in our intestines.
They help us by producing vitamin K, a vitamin we
need for proper enzyme function.
However, E.coli can make us very sick as well.
E.coli is present in our feces, which is why it is so
very important to wash our hands after using the
We are outnumbered!
Even within our bodies, our cells are
outnumbered by bacterial cells 10 to 1.
However, bacterial cells are much smaller
than our own, so they only comprise a
small percentage (3%) of our mass.
And remember, our mitochondria were
once free-living bacterial cells.
Bacterial respiration
Not all bacteria utilize oxygen while
carrying out respiration.
Aerobic respiration is respiration that
requires oxygen.
Anaerobic respiration is respiration that
does not require oxygen.
Some types of bacteria are capable of
doing both.
Extremophiles. The Archaea
Archea are capable of surviving
and thriving in nearly any condition.
We learned about the prokaryotes
that live in deep sea thermal vents.
Other Archea live in deep caves
filled with poisonous gases.
Some, like the ones pictured here,
surviving in near boiling water.
Bacteria and disease.
Some types of bacteria are actually
beneficial to humans and other forms of
However, some bacteria can make us
very, very sick and can even kill us.
Some bacteria make us sick because of
the waste products they produce while
carrying out their life processes.
No members of Archaea are know to
cause disease.
Pathogenic bacteria.
Others, like the flesh eating
bacteria actually break down
and consume our cells!
There are bacteria of this type
that affect other animals as
Other diseases caused by bacteria are
Strep throat
Lyme disease
Defense against bacteria.
Fortunately we have some
defense against bacteria.
Antibiotics are drugs which
attack bacteria cells but
leave our alone.
The poke holes through
their cell walls!
These are autotrophic bacteria, once misleadingly called
blue-green algae.
They are responsible for the first major extinction event
on earth as they flooded the atmosphere with oxygen,
which was toxic to most life on earth.
It is believed that a type of cyanobacteria eventually
became the chloroplasts of plant cells by the process of
Cyanobacteria habitat
While they can be found almost
everywhere, even on bare rock, most are
aquatic, which means they live in water.
If conditions are favorable, their populations
can explode having negative impacts on
While not nearly as dangerous as some
bacteria, some of them can make us sick.
The good side of bacteria.
The bacteria found in yogurt and other fermented
foods help to fight off infections in our intestines.
These are called probiotics.
Some types of bacteria are helpful in de-toxifying
lakes, promoting biodiversity.
Bacteria in the roots of plants called legumes
convert atmospheric nitrogen into a form usable
by plants and animals. These are called nitrogenfixing bacteria.
Finally, it is important to recognize the role
bacteria play in material cycles.
Dead and decaying matter, as well as animal
wastes are broken down primarily by bacteria.
Through decomposition, bacteria break down
nutrients and return them to the soil.
Once in the soil, they can be utilized by plants.
Recently a new level of taxa has been
included into our system of classification
called the Domain.
There are three domains:
Archaea: Extremophile monerans.
Bacteria: prokaryotes like E.Coli and Strep.
Eukaryia: All organisms with eukaryotic cells.
3 Domains of life
Did you ever imagine
you’d be classed in
the same with a
lichen, a mushroom or
an Algae?
Well in this paradigm
you are!
Cells with nuclei rock!
QuickTime™ and a
are needed to see this picture.
What type of cell is common to all Monerans?
What are the two domains populated with
Where can monerans be found?
What two types of respiration is utilized by
How do monerans reproduce?
Most bacteria are harmful, True or False?
Name 3 good things that bacteria do for us.