# Flowmeter Training - S.C. Controls, Inc.

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FLOW
INSTRUMENTATION FOR
HVAC APPLICATIONS
Dave Schmitt
and Derek Esch
Escondido / Irvine
“Serving the Southwest’s Instrumentation
Needs Since 1987”
Overview –
S.C. CONTROLS, INC.
Rep / Distributor / Integrator
 Escondido / Irvine offices
 Founded in 1987
 Specializing in FLOW, LEVEL,
TEMPERATURE, DENSITY
MEASUREMENTS
 Degreed Engineers
 Offering solutions not just sales

Overview
Briefly describe the theory of flow
measurements
 Outline different types of flow meters.
applications.
 Present examples of instruments for
measurement solutions

Flow Measurement Theory
 WHAT
IS FLOW ??
– Measure of the velocity of a fluid per unit
area in a closed conduit; ie: pipe or duct
– FLOW = VELOCITY (fluid) X Area of
Pipe or Duct or Stack
– FLOW = FPM X FT2 or IN2
– Q = AV (Area X velocity)
– Q = ρ AV (density x area x vel)
• Mass flow
FLOW - In our
everyday lives

Water flow meter at our home or
apartment
– used for billing purposes
– Mechanical flow meter with local rate and
total
– Relative accuracy
FLOW - In our
everyday lives
Gas Flow Meter - natural gas measurement of
gas used for cooking and heating
– Mechanical Meter - turbine type
 Liquid flow meter - Gasoline - at the local gas
station where we pumped gas this morning
– Positive displacement type with output
signal to electronic counter for billing

We use flow meters every day to measure fluids we use.
Why meter?
•
•
Mitigate rising energy costs
• Manage energy consumption efficiently
• Apportion energy costs by usage and not
square footage, creating behavior change
You cannot control what you do not
measure.
7
Basic Flow Theory
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8
Volumetric Flow
Mass Flow
Density - Liquid
Density - Steam
Actual vs. Standard Flow - Gas
Energy Flow - Water
Flow Profiles &amp; Reynolds Number
Viscosity
Accuracy
Repeatability
Straight Run Requirements
Meter Installation
Volumetric Flow (all fluids)
Q = A *V
= ft &sup2; * ft sec
= ft &sup3; sec
where:
Q = volumetric flow ft &sup3; sec
A = cross sectional area ( ft &sup2; )
V = average fluid velocity ( ft sec
9
)
Mass Flow
 = Q  = A V 
m
*
* *
= ft &sup2; * ft sec * lbs ft &sup3;
= lbs sec
where:

m = mass flow ( lbs sec )
 = density ( lbs ft &sup3; )
Q = average fluid velocity ( ft sec )
A = cross sectional area ( ft &sup2; )
V = average fluid velocity ( ft sec )
10
Density - Liquids
Liquids
The density of a liquid is inversely proportional to temperature:
WATER
 1 T
11
Temperature
&deg;F
Weight Density
Lbs/gal
32
8.3436
40
8.3451
50
8.343
60
8.3378
70
8.329
80
8.3176
90
8.3037
100
8.2877
Density - Gases
Gases
The density of a gas varies proportionally with pressure and inversely with
temperature:
 = a
1
T
Density of Gas:
 =
2.7  a  SG
Ta
where:
 = Density ( lbs ft 3 )
a = absolute pressure (psia) = 14.7 + Pgage
SG =Specific Gravity
Ta = absolute temperature = F&deg; + 460 = &deg; Rankin
12
Density - Steam
Saturated steam:
Superheated steam:
Saturated Steam Table
13
Superheated Steam Table
Pressure
psia
Temperature
&deg;F
Density
lbs/ft&sup3;
Pressure
psia
Temperature
&deg;F
Density
lbs/ft&sup3;
89.6
320
0.203
20
320
0.044
152.92
360
0.338
20
360
0.041
247.10
400
0.536
20
400
0.039
381.20
440
.820
20
440
0.038
680.00
500
1.480
20
500
0.035
811.40
520
1.780
80
320
0.181
361.50
540
2.150
80
360
0.170
1131.80
560
2.580
80
400
0.161
1324.30
580
3.100
80
440
0.153
1541.00
600
3.740
80
500
0.143
Actual vs. Standard Flow - Gas
Actual Volume Flow:
Q = V * A (actual ft&sup3; sec, ft&sup3; min, etc)
(actual m&sup3; sec,hr, m&sup3; sec, etc)
Standard Volume Flow:
Gas flow in standard units relates the volume flow of gas to the same amount of mass flow of gas at standard conditions:
Qstandard
= Qactual
 operating
 standard conditions
where:
Qstandard
= standard ft&sup3; unit time or
standard m&sup3; unit time
Qactual
= actual volumetric flow (ACFM, ACFH, etc…)
SG
= specific gravity ( gas air , at standard conditions )
operating
standard
14

= density of gas at operating pressure and temperature
= density of gas at standard conditions (at 14.7 psia, 60&deg;F)
Energy Flow

E = m (hs – hr )

E = A V  (h s - h r )

ft
lbs
Btu
E = ft&sup2;  sec  ft&sup3;  lbs
 Btu
E=
sec
where:
15

Chilled/hot water energy (Btu) calculations require
(1) flow and
(2) temperature inputs.

Btu is defined as the amount of energy required to
raise the temperature of 1lb water at 39&deg;F by 1&deg;F.
 = energy flow (Btu
E
 = mass flow
m
)
sec
(lbs sec )
A = cross sectional area (ft&sup2;)
V = average fluid velocity ( ft sec)
 = density ( lbs
ft&sup3;
)
hs = Btu’s (heat content) of water at supply temperature
hr
(Btu lbs)
= Btu’s (heat content) of water at return temperature (Btu lbs)
Flow Profiles &amp; Reynolds Number
16
Re =
inertial forces
frictional forces
Re =
density velocity 
diameter
viscosity
Re =
  V D
&micro;
Viscosity

Dynamic viscosity
cP (centipoise)

Kinematic Viscosity
cst (centistoke)
A measure of how freely a fluid flows:
VcP = Vcst *SG
where:
Vcst = kinematic viscosity
V cP = dynamic viscosity
SG = specific gravity
17
Viscosity
Viscosity can be highly temperature dependent in liquids.
Steam/gas – 0.01 cP
Water – 1.0 cP
Honey – 300 cP
18
Accuracy
Error = % of rate  measurement
% of Full Scale
Error = % of full scale  full scale flow
ACCURACY +/-1%
% of Rate
Max flow 1,000lb/h = 1,010 to 990 lb/h
Min flow 100 lb/h = 101 to 99 lb/h
% Full scale (FS)
Max flow 1,000 lb/h = 1,010 to 990 lb/h
Min flow 100 lb/h = 110 (100 + 10) lb/h
to 90 (100 - 10) lb/h
i.e. +/- 10% error at
minimum flow
19
Repeatability
Accurate &amp; Repeatable
Repeatability:
Differs from Accuracy
Not accurate,
or repeatable
Measures the same all the time
Not accurate,
but repeatable
20
Installation – Straight Run
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21
Straight run requirements
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Minimum 10 pipe diameters upstream and 5 pipe diameters downstream required to get
proper flow profile

Less straight run affects meter accuracy
Installation – Meter Location
Install before valve to avoid air
Vertical orientation– insure full
pipe
Liquid horizontal orientation–
insure full pipe
Gas &amp; steam horizontal orientation
– insure no condensate
22
Top View
Top View
Technologies
Technology
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Operating
Principle
Fluids Measured
DP
(Differential
Pressure)
Orifice plate
Pitot tube
Variable area
Venturi
V-Cone
Accelabar
An obstruction in the flow,
measure pressure
differential before and after
the obstruction
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Low initial cost
No moving parts
 Handle dirty media
 Easy to use
 Well understood technology
 Supported by AGA and API
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Not highly accurate,
particularly in gas flow
 Orifice plate and pitot tube
can become clogged
 High maintenance to
maintain accuracy
 Typically low turndown
 Pressure drop
Liquids
Gases
Steam
Vortex
Inline
Insertion
Bluff body creates
alternating vortices, vortex
shedding frequency equal to
fluid velocity
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High accuracy
No moving parts
 No maintenance
 Measures dirty fluids
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Can be affected by pipe
vibration
 Cannot measure low flows
Liquids
Gases
Steam
Turbine
Inline
Insertion
Dual turbine
Turbine rotates as fluid
passes by, fluid velocity
frequency
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High accuracy
Low flow rates
 Good for steam
 Wide turndown
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Moving parts require higher
maintenance
 Clean fluids only
Liquids
Gases
Steam
Magnetic
Mag
Electromagnetic
Measures voltage generated
by electrically conductive
liquid as it moves through a
magnetic field, induced
voltage is equal to fluid
velocity
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Conductive
liquids
(condensate)
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High Accuracy
Wide turndown
 Bi-directional
 No moving parts
 No pressure loss to system
Conductive fluids only
Expensive to use on large
pipes
Technologies Cont’d
Technology
Operating
Principle
Fluids Measured
Transit-time
Ultrasonic
Fluid velocity measured by time
arrival difference of sound
waves from upstream and
downstream transducers
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Low cost clamp-on installation
Non-intrusive
 No maintenance
 Bi-directional
 Best for larger pipes
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Typically not used on
pipes &lt; 2”
 Less accurate than inline or
insertion meters
 Used primarily for liquids
 Susceptible to changes in fluid
sonic properties
Most liquids
(condensate)
Gas (when spoolpiece)
Doppler
Ultrasonic
Fluid velocity measured by
sensing signals from
reflective materials within the
liquid and measuring the
frequency shift due to the
motion of these reflective
Low-cost,
clamp-on installation
Non-intrusive
 Measures liquids containing
particulates or bubbles
 Low maintenance
 Best for larger pipes
Can’t
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be used in clean liquids
Less accurate than in-line or
transit-time ultrasonic
Most liquids
containing
reflective
materials
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Gases
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materials
Thermal
Mass
24
Measure heat loss of heated
wire thermistor in fluid flow
Measure flow at low pressure
Relative low cost
 Measure fluids not dense enough
for mechanical technologies
 Easier to maintain than DP meter
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Susceptible to sensor wear and
failure
 Not very accurate
 Limited to fluids with known
heat capacities
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Orifice Plate Flowmeter
The orifice plate is a differential pressure
flow meter (Primary element).
Based on the work of Daniel Bernoulli the
relationship between the velocity of fluid
passing through the orifice is proportional to
the square root of the pressure loss across it.
To measure the differential pressure when
the fluid is flowing, connections are made
from the upstream and downstream pressure
tappings to a secondary device known as a
DP (Differential Pressure) cell.
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Fig. 4.3.1 Orifice plate
Orifice Plate Flowmeter
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Orifice Plates

Low cost, especially on large
sizes
Complete Customer Data Sheet:
Customer details
Fluid
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No need for recalibration
Operating pressure
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Widely accepted
Operating temperature
Estimate flow rate
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Poor turndown (4:1 typical)
Long installations (20D to 30D)
Accuracy dependant on
geometry.
Line size, Pipe Schedule, Material
Flange Specification
Required package option
Gilflo ILVA
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30
Line sizes 2-8”
Temp up to 842&deg;F
(450&deg;C)
Accuracy &plusmn;1.0% of
rate
Gas and Steam
applications
Compact installation 6 up and 3 down
Up to 100:1 turndown
DIVA
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Line sizes 2-4”
Saturated Steam ONLY
347&deg;F (175&deg;C)
Accuracy &plusmn;2.0% of
flow
Internal RTD for
Integrated mass flow
measurement
Compact installation 6 up and 3 down
Up to 50:1 turndown
Vortex PhD Flowmeter
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Liquid, Gas, and Steam
1-12” (25 to 300mm)
Temperature up to 750&deg;F(400&deg;C)
interface
In-process removable sensor
(below 750psig)
Fully welded design with no leak
path
Optional remote mount electronic
Accuracy
 Liquid &plusmn;0.7% of rate
 Gas and Steam &plusmn;1.0% of rate
Turndown up to 20:1
Vortex
V-Bar Insertion Vortex Meter
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Liquid, Gas, and Steam
Model 60/60S Hot Tap, retractable
Model 700 Insertion low temp, low
pressure
Model 910/960 Hot tap, retractable
 960-high temp up to 500&deg;F (260&deg;C),
high pressure
Optional Temperature and/or Pressure
Transmitter
Line sizes 3-80” (76 to 2032mm)
No moving parts
Accuracy
 Liquid &plusmn;1.0% of rate
 Gas and Steam &plusmn;1.5% of flow rate
test conditions
Turndown up to 20:1
VBar
Turbo-Bar Insertion Turbine Flow Meter
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Liquid, Gas, and Steam
Liquid flow velocity down to 1 ft/sec
Model 60/60S Hot Tap, retractable
Model 700 Insertion low temp, low
pressure
Model 910/960 Hot tap, retractable
 960-high temp up to 750&deg;F (400&deg;C),
high pressure
Optional Pressure and/or Temperature
Transmitter
Line sizes 3-80” (76 to 2032mm)
Nominal Accuracy
 Liquids &plusmn;1.0% of rate
 Gas and Steam &plusmn;1.5% of rate
Turndown up to 25:1
TMP
Hydro-Flow Water Vortex Meter
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No Moving Parts
Flow Range 1 to 15 ft/s (0.3 to 4.5 m/sec)
Accuracy &plusmn;1.0% of Full Scale
1/2 to 20” Line Size
Microprocessor-based electronics with
optional local display
Maximum Fluid temperature 160&deg;F
(70&deg;C)
Model 2300 for acids, solvents, Deionized, and ultra pure water (1/2 to 8”)
Model 2200 Fixed Insertion for (2 to 20”)
Model 1200 for water, water/glycol (1-3”)
Model 3100 retractable insertion (3-20”)
Models 1200 and 2200 have Aluminum
Enclosure option for wet environments
or heavy industrial installations
2200
2300
1200
3100
Sono-Trak&reg; Transit Time
Ultrasonic Flowmeter
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Liquid applications-Clean
2-100” (50 to 2540mm)
Accuracy typically &plusmn;2.0%
of rate
Non-Intrusive
No wetted parts
Multiple outputs available
interface
Bi-Directional
Transducer cable length
up to 300’
Sono-Trak
36
UniMag Electromagnetic Flowmeter
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Field Serviceable Design
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Field replaceable sensors and coils
No Liner Required
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No liner failure
Solid State Sensor Design
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Encapsulated coil and electrode
assembly insensitive to shock and
Vibration
Plurality of Sensors
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Uniquely powerful magnetic field
Non-standard Flow Tube Lengths
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Easy replacement of existing meters
Measures Low Conductivity Media
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Conductivity down to 0.8 &micro;S/cm
SAGE METERING, INC.
THERMAL MASS FLOW METERS
FOR MEASURING GAS FLOW
WHAT IS A THERMAL MASS
FLOW METER?
 It
is a Meter that directly measures
the Gas Mass Flow based on the
principle of conductive and convective
heat transfer – more detail later…
MEASURE MASS FLOW RATE
OR TOTALIZE COMMON GASES
Air (Compressed Air, Blower Air, Blast Furnace
Air, Combustion Air, Plant Air, Make-Up Air)
 Natural Gas Industrial (Plant Usage, SubMetering, Boiler Efficiency, Combustion Control)
 Natural Gas Commercial &amp; Governmental
(Building Automation – Reduce Energy Costs,
LEED Credits, Meet Regulations)
 Digester Gas, Bio Gas, Landfill Gas (especially
for EPA regulations and Carbon Credits)
 Flare Gas (Vent Gas and Upset – Dual Range)
 Other: Propane, Nitrogen, Argon, CO2

WHAT DO THE SENSORS
CONSIST OF?
 The
Sensors are RTDs, which are
resistance temperature detectors
 They
consist of highly stable referencegrade platinum windings
 In
fact, we use the same material that is
used as Platinum Resistance Standards at
the National Institute of Standards (NIST)
THE BASIC PRINCIPLE



The RTDs are clad in a protective 316 SS sheath for
Industrial Environments
One of the RTDs is self-heated by the circuitry and
serves as the Flow Sensor
The other RTD acts as a Reference Sensor. Essentially
it is used for Temperature Compensation
SAGE PROPRIETARY SENSOR
DRIVE CIRCUITRY

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

Circuitry maintains a constant overheat
between the Flow Sensor and Reference Sensor
As Gas Flows by the Heated Sensor (Flow
Sensor), the molecules of flowing gas carry heat
away from this sensor, and the Sensor cools
down as it loses energy
Circuit equilibrium is disturbed, and
momentarily the delta T between the Heated
Sensor and the Reference Sensor has changed
The circuit will automatically (within 1 second),
replace this lost energy, by heating up the Flow
Sensor so the overheat temperature is restored
HOW DO THE RTDs
MEASURE MASS FLOW
The
current required to
maintain this overheat
represents the Mass Flow
signal
There is no need for external
Temperature or Pressure
devices
INSERTION STYLE
 &frac12;”
Probes up to 24” long
 Typically for pipes from 1” up to 30”
 &frac34;” Probes up to 60” Long
 Typically for very large pipes and ducts
 Or use multiple probes, one in each
quadrant and average in large ducts
 Isolation Valve Assemblies available
 Flanged Mounting available (High P or T)
 Captive Flow Conditioners (2” – 24” Dia.)
INSERTIONS NEED STRAIGHT
RUN (Min 10 up, 5 down)*
EEEE

*If insufficient straight run, consider Sage inexpensive
Captive Flow Conditioners
CAPTIVE FLOW CONDITIONERS
OPTIONALLY INSTALLED BY USERS
UPSTREAM OF INSERTION METERS
IF INSUFFICIENT STRAIGHT RUN
IN-LINE METERS

&frac14;” Flow Bodies up to
4” NPT or Flanged
Built-in
Flow
Conditioning (&gt;1/2”)
SAGE INTEGRAL MASS FLOW METERS
SAGE REMOTE MASS FLOW METERS
SAGE
 Powerful
TM
PRIME
State-of-The-Art
Microprocessor Technology
 High Performance Mass Flow
Measurement at Low Cost-of-Ownership
 Proprietary Digital Sensor Drive Circuit
Provides Enhanced Signal Stability
 Low Power Dissipation, under 2.5 Watts
(&lt;100 ma at 24 VDC)
SAGE
TM
PRIME
(Continued)
High Contrast Photo-Emissive Organic
LEDs (OLEDs)
 Displays Calibration Milliwatts (mw) for
Ongoing Diagnostics (Zero Calibration Check)
 Modbus Compliant RS485 RTU
Communications (IEEE 32 Bit Floating Point)
 Remote Style has Lead-Length Compensation
– Up to 1000 Feet
 24 VDC or 115/230 VAC Power
 12 VDC Option (for Solar Energy)

SAGE PRIME ORGANIC LED
(OLED) DISPLAY
SAGE PRIME DISPLAY (CONTINUED)
High Contrast OLEDs Visible even in Sunlight
 Graphical Display – Displays Pctg of FS Rate
 Flow Rate in any Units (per Sec, Min or Hour)
 Totalizes up to 9 digits, then rolls over
 Displays Temperature in &ordm;F or &ordm;C
 Continuously Displays raw milliwatts (mw) for
ongoing Diagnostics (zero mw on Certificate)
 Diagnostic LEDs for Power and Modbus

SAGE PRIME INPUT/ OUTPUTS
24 VDC Power (draws less than 100 ma)
 115 VAC/ 230VAC or 12 VDC Optional
 Outputs 4 – 20 ma of Flow Rate
 Outputs 12 VDC Pulses of Totalized Flow

(Solid State, sourcing, transistor drive – 500ms Pulse)

Modbus&reg; compliant RS485 Communications
1,2
SAGE PRIME REMOTE BRACKET
SAGE PRIME
RECONFIGURABILITY
Basis Sage ADDRESSER Software and Ulinx
 Sage DONGLE shown below (no computer
needed)

(OVER OTHER TYPES OF TECHNOLOGIES)
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Direct Mass Flow – No need for
separate temperature or pressure
transmitters
High Accuracy and Repeatability
Turndown of 100 to 1 and resolution as
much as 1000 to 1
Low-End Sensitivity – Detects leaks,
and measures as low as 5 SFPM!
(Pressure Independence)
15 Data Points at 110
psig (BP), than same
output, even at 0 psig
(No Back Pressure)
(Separate Rear Enclosure)


Sage Prime has a dualcompartment windowed
enclosure featuring a
very high contrast
photo-emissive OLED
display
The rear compartment,
which is separated from
the electronics, has
large, easy-to-access
and well marked
terminals, for ease of
customer wiring
Building Automation Contractors
 Mandate
to Reduce Energy
Consumption
 Needs Assessments/Portable Testing
 Permanent Monitoring tied to Control
Systems - -NG, Air, N2
Compressed Air
 Facilities
Monitoring
 Sub-metering/Billing
 Leak Detection
 Energy Conservation
 Compressor Optimization
 Performance Testing
??????????????????????
QUESTIONS
AND