Salon Ecology

Salon Ecology
In this chapter you will be learning
Infection Control
First Aid and Safety
• The study of small living organisms called
microbes, such as bacteria.
• Because infectious bacteria and viruses are
easily transmitted from person to person, it is
important that a professional cosmetologist,
coming in contact with many people on a daily
basis, understands particular aspects of
• One-celled microorganisms; germs; microbes.
• The study of bacteria is referred to as
• Germ – is a non-scientific name for small
organisms, such as bacteria, fungi, and
viruses that invade the body and cause
• Harmless, non-disease producing bacteria
• Cause decay of refuse, improve fertility of soil
• Can be beneficial (ex. Yogurt has health enhancing
• Saprophytes – live on dead matter do not produce
• 70% of all bacteria are nonpathogenic
• Live everywhere
• Cause of infection and disease and some
produce toxins.
• Spread easily
– In salon by using unsanitary styling
– Or dirty hands and fingernails
• Have distinct shapes that aid in their
microscopic identification.
Example of Pathogenic Bacterial
Wound Infection is caused by multiplying
pathogenic bacteria which cause a reaction in the
patient. Infection can be systemic, causing the
patient to become ill, or local only affecting the
wound bed and surrounding tissues.
Pathogenic Bacteria
• Cocci
– Round - shaped cells
– Appear singularly or in groups
– There are 3 groups of Cocci
• Staphlococci
– Forms a bunch or clusters
(like grapes)
– Pus – forming
– Found in boils
– Cause of staph infection
• Streptoccocci
– Form in long chains
– Pus – forming
– Cause strep throat, blood
poisoning, rheumatic fever and more.
• Diplococci
– Round and grow in pairs
– Diplo means two.
– Cause pneumonia
• Bacilli
– Most common
– Bar or Rod – shaped
– Cause fever, tetanus, bacterial
influenza, typhoid fever, tuberculosis
and diphtheria.
• Spirilla
– Spiraled, corkscrew shape
– Cause syphilis and cholera
– Treponema pallidah
(a stain of Spirilla) that causes
Take the information you
have just learned and do
the exercise on the next
Growth of Bacteria
• It is very important to keep areas clean,
dry and unfavorable for bacterial growth!
• Bacteria grow best in warm, damp
• Bacteria grow through a growth cycle that
consists of two stages:
– Active
– Inactive
Active Bacteria
• Reproduce and Grow Rapidly
• Grow in dark,damp,dirty areas where a food
source is available.
• Grow in size and divide creating two cells.
• As much as16 million cells can produce in as
little as 12 hours
Inactive Bacteria
• Condition unfavorable = No Growth
• Form spores not hurt by disinfection, cold
or heat.
• Conditions good – they return to active
Movement of Bacteria
• Bacilli and Spirilla have flagella (cilia)
– Hair-like projections which extend from the
sides of the cell.
• Act as propellers to help bacteria travel
through air and liquids.
• Without this, movement of bacteria would
be limited.
• Smaller than bacteria; cause familiar
diseases: Cold, Measles, Hepatitis, HIV
• HBV – Human Hepatitis B; affects liver;
may need vaccine; (PSW – personal
service worker)
• HIV – AIDS; affects natural immunity; body
fluids into bloodstream of non-infected.
• Cosmetologist are licensed to prevent the
unnecessary spread of infectious
diseases, such as HBV and HIV.
External Parasites
• Plants or animals that live on or obtain their
nutrients from another organism.
• Ringworm (tinea capitis)
• Produced by parasitic plant or fungi
– Contracted by improperly disinfected implements.
Continue External Parasites
• Scabies, Itch Mite, Head Lice
– Caused by parasitic animals
• Certain insects that cause contagious disease.
– Head Lice
• Transmitted directly from one person to another, or
by contact with articles that have come in contact
with an infested person.
• Symptoms: scratching, redness, or small bite
marks on the scalp.
• Treat by using a pediculicide (lice-killing) shampoo.
What do head lice look like?
Lice Eggs
Lice Shampoo
Responding Instead of Reacting
• Responding to a situation means to deal
with the situation in a calm mature
manner. Solve the problem.
• Reacting to a situation is when a person
reacts first and thinks later. When we do
this we may not say and do the right thing.
We could end up making the situation
• Have empathy and be a professional.
– Put yourself in the other persons shoes.
• Caused by pathogenic bacteria or viruses;
entering the body and multiplying.
– Contagious (communicable) – Can transmit
through touch or the air.
– Bloodborn pathogens – carried through blood
or body fluids.
– Primary reason behind additional infection
control procedures.
• Common means of spreading infection in a
– Open sores
– Unclean hands and implements
– Coughing or sneezing
– Common use of drinking cups and towels
– Use of same implements on infected areas and
non-infected areas
– Unsanitary salon conditions
Universal Precautions
• Wash Hands
• Wear gloves whenever there is a possibility of coming
in contact with blood or other potentially infectious
materials (body fluids and tissues)
• Wear face masks and eye protection whenever there
is a possibility of blood splashing into the rescuer's
• Dispose of all contaminated sharp objects in an
appropriate puncture-proof container
• Dispose of all contaminated personal protective
equipment in an appropriate container marked for biohazardous waste
Two Basic Classes of Infection
• Local Infection – Effects a small
Local Infection
– Often indicated by a pus-filled boil,
pimple or inflamed area.
• General Infection (systemic) –
Effects the whole body
– Occurs when the circulatory system
carries bacteria and their toxins to all
parts of the body.
General Infection
• Asymptomatic – Carries disease –
SHOWS NO SIGNS!! That’s why
we have Universal Precautions!
– Ex. – A person can have HIV and show
no visible signs.
Staph infection that is
• Your body can destroy an infection that enters
the body, if you are immune to that particular
• Immunity gives your body the ammunition to
fight disease.
• Doctors can test the white blood cell count as a
way to determine the level of illness suffered by
a patient.
Natural Immunity
• Partially inherited, natural resistance to
• Body produces white blood cells and
antitoxins to fight disease
• Skin protects body from microbes
– 1st line of defense!
Passive Immunity
• Acquired
– Developed through
the injection of
– Stimulate the
body’s immune
– Ex: Polio vaccine
Infection Control
• Infection Control – Efforts to prevent the spread
of disease and kill certain or all microbes.
– Efficacy = effectiveness
• Efficacy- “ability to produce results” or “effectiveness”
• Efficacy labels are on all disinfectants to inform the user
about what the product is “effective in fighting against”.
• Understanding how to destroy microbes and
prevent disease from spreading in the salon will
help protect professional cosmetologists and
their clients from the unnecessary spread of
infectious diseases and maintain a safe, efficient
working environment.
Infection Control Pyramid
• Sterilization: the most effective level of infection control.
– Used on tools and implements that are used to puncture or
invade the skin.
– Kills – all infectious diseases.
– Destroys or kills all microbes including bacterial spores.
Sterilized Implements
• Bloodborn Pathogen
Disinfection: Must use an
EPA-registered broad
spectrum disinfectant
labeled as effective
against HIV and HBV or
– Required for all tools and
implements that have come
in contact with blood or
body fluids.
– Kills: HIV and HBV or
• Disinfection: chemical products
used to destroy or kill bacteria
and some viruses (except
bacterial spores).
– Kills - Certain bacteria
– On nonporous surfaces, such as
Antiseptic: Product applied to the skin
to reduce microbes.
Clean surface on which to perform
procedures and you have helped to
prevent the future growth of microbes.
Prevents - Growth of bacteria
Ex. Numbing cream with antiseptic to
apply before waxing.
• Sanitation: Clean and reduce microbes on the
surface, but do not kill germs.
Removes - Dirt and debris
1st level of infection control
Prevents the growth of microbes.
Does not kill bacteria (Removes, but does not kill)
Proper Hand Washing Procedure
Liquid Soap vs. Bar Soap
Liquid Soap
In closed bottle
Not exposed to microbes
Bar Soap
Left out wet
Exposed to microbes
Perfect environment for
bacterial growth
Disinfectant Safety
• Disinfectants are powerful,
professional-strength tools
that can be hazardous if
used incorrectly.
• Can be poisonous if
• Can cause serious skin
and eye damage,
especially in a
concentrated form.
Follow these guidelines when using
Hospital Grade Disinfectants:
• Wear gloves and
safety glasses when
mixing chemicals with
• Always add
disinfectant to water,
not water to
• Use tongs, gloves, or a draining
basket to remove implements
from disinfectant.
• Keep disinfectants away from
• Never pour disinfectants on
your hands. Can cause skin
irritation and increase the
chance of infection. Wash
hands with soap and warm
water and dry them thoroughly.
• Carefully weigh and
measure all products to
ensure that they
perform at peak
• Always keep
disinfectants in a
marked container.
• Follow manufacturer’s
recommendations for
mixing and using, and
check the efficacy to make
sure you are using the right
• Avoid overexposure.
Disinfectants are
chemicals, and overuse id
detrimental to the
• When using jars or
containers to disinfect
implements be sure to
change the solution every
• Or, as often as needed to
keep free from debris.
• Implements should be
cleaned with soap and
water before placing in
Type of tools that can be
Nail Clippers
• Department of Labor regulatory agency
• Occupational Safety and Health
• Regulates and enforces safety and health
standards to protect employees in the
• Key info on product ingredients.
• Material Safety Data Sheets.
– Information about hazardous
ingredients, safe use and handling
procedures, precautions to reduce
the risk of harm and overexposure,
flammability and data in case of a
fire, proper disposal guidelines, and
medical information should anyone
have a reaction to the product.
• Approves efficacy of products.
• Environmental Protection Agency
– The EPA licenses different types of
– The type used in the salon are hospital grade
disinfectants that kill HBV, HIV and
First Aid
Accidents and
emergencies happen
everywhere. Basic
knowledge of first aid
will prove invaluable.
Bleeding and Wounds
• Step 1 – Place clean cloth or
gauze and gloved hand over
wound. Apply firm pressure for 5
• Step 2 – Call 9-1-1 (if bleeding is
• Step 3 – Elevate injured arm or
leg above level of victims heart if
• Step 4 – When bleeding stops,
secure cloth with a bandage –
Don’t lift cloth to see if bleeding
stopped. Make sure that bandage
is not too tight.
Chemical Burns
1. Rinse away all traces of chemicals while
moving away any contaminated clothing.
2. Cover burn loosely with clean, dry cloth.
3. Refer person to medical personnel.
Heat or Electrical Burn
1. If skin is not broken, immerse in cool
water or gently apply cool compress.
2. Do NOT break a blister if one forms. Do
NOT apply ointments or creams.
3. If skin is broken or if burn is severe:
Call 9-1-1
Do NOT clean
Cover burn
1st Degree Burns
• First Degree
• Symptom is redness
• Burn only effects the surface, the epidermis layer
of the skin.
• Apply ice or cold water.
2nd Degree Burns
– Second Degree
• Symptom is redness and watery blisters.
• Burn effects the two upper most layers of the skin
(epidermis and dermis).
• Apply ice or cold water and may refer to a
3rd Degree Burns
– Third Degree
• Symptom involves deeper structures of flesh and
possible charring of tissue.
• Burn effects all 3 main layers of the skin
(epidermis, dermis and subcutaneous) and may
even reach the muscle.
• Refer to a physician immediately!
1st, 2nd, and 3rd Degree Burns
Step 1 – Determine if victim can talk or
cough. If no, have someone call 9-1-1,
while you do abdominal thrusts.
Step 2 – Stand behind victim; wrap arms
around his/her stomach.
Step 3 – Make thumbless fist with one hand
and place that fist just above navel and
well below the ribs with thumb and
forefinger side toward the victim.
Step 4 – Perform upward thrust by grasping
fist with other hand and pulling it quickly
toward you; repeat if necessary.
• Step 1 – lay victim down on
back – allow plenty of fresh
• Step 2 – Reassure victim
and apply cold compress to
• Step 3 – If victim vomits, roll
onto side, keep windpipe
• Call 9-1-1 if victim does not
regain consciousness.
Chemical Eye Injury
• Hold eyelids apart – flush
eyeball with luke warm water
for 15 – 30 minutes; don’t let
runoff flow into the other eye.
• Place gauze pad or cloth
over both eyes and secure
with bandage.
• Get to an eye specialist or
emergency room
Cut, Scratch or Embedded
Object in Eye
• Place gauze pad or cloth over both eyes
and secure with a bandage.
• Do NOT try to remove an embedded
• Get to an eye specialist or emergency
room immediately.
Examples of Object In Eye