2013 Emissions Gap Report
• Scientists agree that risks of
irreversible damage to the
environment would increase
significantly should global average
temperature rise above 2°C in
relation to pre-industrial levels by
the end of the century
• Total global GHG emissions in
2010 were 50.1 GtCO2e
• To stay within the 2° C target,
emissions should be a ≤ 44
GtCO2e by 2020
• Even if nations meet their current
climate pledges, GHG emissions in
2020 are likely to be 8 - 12 GtCO2e
above the level that would provide
a likely chance of remaining on the
least-cost pathway
2013 Emissions Gap Report - UNEP
2013 Emissions Gap Report
• It is still possible to attain the 2020 goal of 44
GtC02e/year through firm and rapid action
• The following could bring the global
community about halfway to closing the gap:
– Tighten up the rules governing pledges in the
climate negotiations (1-2 GtCO2e)
– Implement the maximum reductions already
pledged without conditions (2-3 GtCO2e)
– Expand the scope of pledges (2 GtCO2e)
2013 Emissions Gap Report - UNEP
2013 Emissions Gap Report - UNEP
2013 Emissions Gap Report
• Remaining gap could be bridged by further international and
national action, including through “international cooperative
– Energy efficiency (2 GtCO e)
– Renewable energy initiatives (1-3 GtCO e)
– Fossil fuel subsidy reform (0.4 to 2 GtCO e)
• Three categories of initiatives
– Global dialogues (e.g. G8, G20, ministerial level, industry, academia,
and/or civil society)
– Formal multilateral processes (international treaties e.g. Montreal
Protocol or sector specific organizations e.g. International Civil
Aviation Organization or International Maritime Organization)
– Implementation initiatives (technical dialogues e.g. Mitigation and
MRV Partnership or the Clean Energy Ministerial, and sector-specific
initiatives e.g. Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Partnership,
2013 Emissions Gap Report - UNEP
2013 Emissions Gap Report
• For international cooperative initiatives to be
effective, they must have:
– A clearly defined vision & mandate
– The right mix of participants appropriate for that
mandate, going beyond traditional climate negotiators
– Stronger participation from developing country actors
– Sufficient funding & an institutional structure that
supports implementation & follow-up, but maintains
– Incentives for participants
– Transparency & accountability mechanisms
2013 Emissions Gap Report - UNEP
2013 Emissions Gap Report
• Energy efficiency (which includes inter alia
buildings’ heating & cooling) is a priority
mitigation opportunity
• Fluorinated greenhouse gases is frequently
listed as priority area for mitigation measures
2013 Emissions Gap Report - UNEP