Kingdom: BACTERIA AND ARCHAEA

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Kingdom:
BACTERIA AND
ARCHAEA
These are Prokaryotes!!
Bacteria
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Bacteria are literally everywhere. Skin, air,
door handles, water fountains, ponds, desks,
on food, in your intestines, ect
Your skin has on average 100,000 bacteria
per square centimeter.
Bacteria a variety of environments from 0*C
to 100*C and above. To us Americans that
temperatures between 32*F and over 212*F
Binary Fission
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Bacterial replication – Extremely simple
It is a form of asexual reproduction
The bacteria divides and to form an exact
copy of itself.
Some rare cases – bacteria will exchange
genetic information through a tube. This is a
form of sexual reproduction that gives some
genetic diversity. (“grab-bag recomb”)
Bacteria Shape: Coccus

Simplest bacteria
shape




Spherical or ball
shaped
Typically grouped
together
Staphylococcus
Streptococcus
Bacteria Shape: Bacillus


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Rod-shaped
bacteria
Almost always Gram
negative.
Typically have thin cell
walls
E. coli is the most well
known Bacilli bacteria
Bacteria Shape: Spirillium

Typically are spiral
shaped, but can
come in a variety of
shapes.
Aerobic vs. Anaerobic


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Require oxygen to
breakdown food.
Metabolism is similar to
most animals.
Found in temperate
climates and habitats.
Shallow waters as well.


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Do not require oxygen
to breakdown food.
Several forms of
anaerobic bacteria can
be found in your
intestines.
Found also in deep
water and deep soil.
Gram Negative vs. Gram Positive

Gram negative
–
–
Thin cell wall, very
little peptidoglycan
Gram negative
bacteria stain “Pink”
when a Gram stain
is done

Gram positive
–
–
Thick cell wall, high
in peptidoglycan
Gram positive
bacteria stain purple
or very dark blue
Cyanobacteria

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Producer eubacteria. They make their own
food by “photosynthesis.”
Normally blue or green in color, but can be
red, yellow, or black
Normally group together in chains.
–
They can do this because they are covered in jelly
like substance that lets them stick to each other.
Positive uses of Bacteria


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Pasteurization of thinks like milk and juice
Culturing foods such as cheeses.
Cleaning up waste
Bioremediation
Saprophytes and Nitrogen fixers

“Consumer bacteria”
–
–

Saprophytes use dead and decaying matter as
their food source.
They are responsible for nutrient recycling
Nitrogen fixing bacteria
–
–
These bacteria change nitrogen gas to a form that
plants and animals can use.
Found typically in the soil, around the roots of
plants
Bioremediation
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What is Bioremediation??
Bioremediation is the completely safe and
natural process of cleaning up organic
contaminants through the use of microbes.
EZ Definition: Using bacteria to clean up
waste
Harmful bacteria: Pathogens

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Bacteria that can make you sick.
Produce toxins, which are chemicals that are
poisonous to the body.
Botulism, TB, Pneumonia are examples.
Vaccines…..remember them.
They help prevent many bacterial diseases.
Kingdom: Archaebacteria

EXTREME-O-PHILE BACTERIA
– Thermophiles “ Heat lovers”
– Methanophiles “Methane lovers”
– “Sulfur lovers”
– “Salt lovers”
Archaea features

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No nucleus
No membrane bound organelles
Live in the most extreme conditions
Were considered in Bacteria kingdom, until
the 1970’s
Researched by Dr. Carl Woese and
colleagues at Univ. of Illinois
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