SOME CULTURAL MANAGEMENT & HARVESTING PRACTICES OF SELECTED PHILIPPINE MEDICINAL PLANTS TEN CLINICALLY TESTED PHILIPPINE MEDICINAL PLANTS WITH THE CORRESPONDING INDICATIONS: • Akapulko (Cassia alata L.) – Anti-fungal • Ampalaya (Momordica charantia L.) – Antidiabetic (Diabetes mellitus, mild, noninsulin dependent) • Bawang (Allium sativum L.) – Lowers cholesterol level (Anti-hypercholesteromia) • Bayabas (Psidium guajava L.) – Antiseptic (mouth sores, swollen gums, dental carries) • Lagundi (Vitex negundo L.) – Expectorant, bronchodilator • Niyog-niyogan (Quisqualis indica L.) – Anthelmintic (ascaris) • Sambong (Blumea balsamifera L.D.C.) – Diuretic; Antiurolithiasis (dissolves kidney stones) • Tsaang Gubat (Ehretia microphylla Lam.) Anti-colic; Antispasmodic • Ulasimang Bato (Peperomia pellucida (Linn.) HBK) Anti-urecemic (gout) • Yerba Buena (Mentha cordifolia Opiz) - Analgesic (pain reliever) SITE SELECTION reliable water source prevailing social conditions of the area accessibility (road network) pollution free soil (well drained with sufficient soil moisture) can be grown under partial shade & full sunlight PROPAGATION ease of propagation (primary consideration) with sexual or asexual method length of time by which plant part desired will attain luxuriant growth & the required physiological maturity Some physiological factors such as dormancy, absence of endosperm, etc. Sexual method Akapulco, Ampalaya, Bayabas, & Ulasimang bato Asexual method * Bawang (Cloves) * Lagundi, Niyog-niyogan & Tsaang Gubat (pencil-sized stem cuttings with 2-3 nodes or terminal stem cuttings), use of growth regulators for woody types to induce more rooting * Sambong (plantlets 12-15cm tall, higher chance of survival than bigger ones) * Yerba Buena (terminal stem cuttings w/ about 4 pairs of leaves) * For cuttings (asexual) * Initially planted in small containers as 4” x 6” in. plastic bags * Soil mixture of sand and soil (1:1) or soil, rice hull and compost (1:1:1) * At least one node of the stem cuttings should be buried under the soil medium * Cuttings are maintained under partial shade & watered as needed * Generally, rooting takes place in 3-4 weeks & ready for transplanting 6-8 weeks after planting LAND PREPARATION For newly opened areas, it starts with cleaning followed by plowing and harrowing Intensity of operations depends on weed density & amt. of crop residues left Zero tillage is practiced for as long as soil structure is good (means good drainage & good aeration) Differs in perennials & annuals - For perennials, Land can be planted even with large clod of soil. Small areas where the seedlings will be planted is tilled. When established, only ring weeding is necessary. - For annuals, They need excellent land preparation since they are easily overcome by weeds. - Advisable to add organic matter such as compost, dried animal manures & other crop residues to clayey soil. LAYOUT PREPARATION • Follow recommended planting distances • Row orientation is preferably in an east-west direction • Wider spacing is recommended when there is an intercropped or when a small tractor is available for maintenance • In sloping topography, direction of rows or plots are made across the slope. • Mark individual hills with stakes as guide for holing • Depth and size of hole is generally equal to the depth and width of the ball of soil where seedling is planted HARDENING & TRANSPLANTING Hardened prior to transplanting (hardening is the practice of acclimatizing seedlings to field conditions for sometime prior to final field planting) Lessen transplanting shock Transplanting is best during cloudy days or in the late afternoon Cut most of the mature leaves into half (across the length) to minimize transpiration MAINTENANCE Watering - Water the plants whenever necessary - Shallow rooted species should always be watered (Sambong & Yerba Buean: 7-10 days interval using furrow irrigation. 10-14 days interval for deep rooted). Weeding - Weed control used in general (plowing in between rows, cutting weeds close to the ground, uproofing, off barring, ring weeding & mulching) - Frequent weeding helps in minimizing pests aside from lessening competition for nutrients and moisture in the soil - Mulching (process of covering agricultural waste - For large cultivation, cutting the weeds close to the ground once a month is sufficient to control weeds Fertilizer Application - Added to the soil or applied to the foliage for the purpose of supplementing the plant’s nutrient supply - May be chemical (inorganic) or natural (organic) - Organic fertilizers improve the physical structure of the soil, improve aeration & water retention - Fertilizer recommendations depend on the species, unfortunately such are not yet established for all of the 10 medicinal plants under Philippine conditions except for ampalaya and bawang Harvesting and Postharvest Handling: Harvest only mature, healthy plant parts specified. - Niyog-niyogan normally bears fruit 2 years after planting and yearly afterwards ( March to May). AKAPULCO (Cassia alata L.) WET AND DRY leaf 5-6 mos. After planting and Every 4 mos. thereafter Cutting at 0.75 to 1.0m from The ground AMPALAYA (Momordica charantia L.) Wet and dry tops 2-3 mos. After planting and Every 1-2 weeks thereafter Cutting of tops 40 to 50 cm long LAGUNDI (Vitex negundo) Wet and dry leaf 7-8 mos. After planting and Every 3-5 mos. thereafter Pruning at 0.75 to 1.0m From the ground Air 1 year Polyethylene bags SAMBONG ( Blumea balsamifera (L.) DC.) dry leaf 3-5 mos. After planting and Every 3 mos. thereafter Cutting of leaves as in tobacco air 2 months Polyethylene Bags TSAANG GUBAT (Carmona retusa (Vahl.) Masam) wet/dry leaf 7-8 mos. After planting and Every 4 mos. thereafter Pruning at 0.75 to 1.0 m from the ground air 1 year Polyethylene bags ULASIMANG bato ( Peperomina pellucida HBK.) wet Whole plant 2-3 mos. After planting Uprooting of whole plant YERBA buena ( Mentha cordifolia) dry leaf 2-3 mos. After planting and Every 3 mos. Thereafter; Replant after 4 harvestings Cutting of first 6 pairs of leaves (12 cm fr. The ground) air 2 months Polyethylene bags This is Timmy THANK YOU !!!