Respiratory Protection Training

Respiratory Protection
• This training material presents very important information.
• Your organization must do an evaluation of all exposures,
applicable codes and regulations, and establish proper controls,
training, and protective measures to effectively control exposures
and assure compliance.
• This program is neither a determination that the conditions and
practices of your organization are safe nor a warranty that
reliance upon this program will prevent accidents and losses or
satisfy local, state or federal regulations.
• All procedures and training, whether required by law or not,
should be implemented and reviewed by safety and risk
management professionals, and legal counsel to ensure that all
local, state and federal requirements are satisfied.
Course Outline – Respiratory Protection
1. Why Take Respiratory Protection Training?
2. When to Use Respirators?
3. Types of Respirators
4. Filter and Cartridges
5. Atmosphere Supplying Respirators
6. Fit Testing
7. Respirator Use
8. Protection Factors
9. Respirator Program
10. Summary
Why Take Respiratory Protection Training?
Respirators protect employee health:
Employees wear respirators to
protect themselves against the
inhalation of harmful air
contaminants in the work place.
Respirators are the last line of
defense against airborne
Where possible, engineering,
administrative and work practice
controls must be used to control or
eliminate hazards and minimize
employee exposures.
Why Take Respiratory Protection Training?
Respirators are only effective:
If the employees know the correct respirator
to use for a given situation.
If the respirators are available when
employees need to use them.
If employees know how to use them.
If the respirator fits well and has an adequate
face to face piece seal (tight fitting
If employees properly maintain them and
store them per the manufacturer’s
When To Use Respirators?
Respirators must be worn:
Where feasible engineering controls do
not adequately remove or control the
hazards. Respiratory protection will be
used to provide employees with proper
protection against those hazards.
Respiratory protection may also be used
while engineering controls are being
evaluated or implemented.
Types of Respirators
Respirator type depends on the job and hazard type:
There are many different types of respirators..
Only approved respirators can be considered. They must be approved for
protection against the specific hazards that are present in the work site.
Respirators are tested and approved by the National Institute for
Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) or the Mine Safety and Health
Administration (MSHA).
The entire respirator assembly, including cartridges, filters, and hoses
must pass certification tests in order to be approved.
Types of Respirators
Filtering face piece (dust mask):
A negative pressure particulate
respirator, with a filter as an integral
part of the face piece or with the
entire face piece composed of the
filtering medium.
General Respirator Categories
Negative pressure respirator:
A respirator where the air pressure inside the face piece is negative
during inhalation with respect to the ambient air pressure outside the
General Respirator Categories
Positive pressure respirator:
A respirator in which the pressure inside the respiratory inlet covering
exceeds the ambient air pressure outside the respirator.
General Respirator Categories
Loose-fitting respirators:
Face piece
• These do not require a fit test, or the user to be clean shaven.
• They do require an external air source and minimum air flow maintained.
Types of Respirators
Air-purifying respirators (APR):
Half mask
Full face piece
Air-purifying respirators seal against the wearer’s face and require fit testing
to verify that it is adequately protecting the user. These devices:
•Provide protection against specific contaminants.
•Provide a specific level of protection against exposure.
•Provide clean or filtered air to the user’s breathing zone.
Types of Respirators
Air purifying respirators-APR:
Air purifying respirators are stand
alone, as opposed to air supplying
respirators that are attached to a
supplied air source.
Air purifying respirators (APRs) use
a filter (cartridge or canister) to
remove specific contaminants from
the air.
Contaminants come in either a particulate or chemical form.
Types of Respirators
Air purifying respirators-APR (continued):
Respirator filters must match the respirator brand since they are
approved as a unit.
Particulate respirator filters have efficiency ratings:
- “95” means 95% filtering efficiency
- “99” means 99% filtering efficiency
- “100” means 99.97% filtering efficiency
Types of Respirators
Don’t use air purifying respirators in these conditions:
• Whenever there are unidentified contaminants or when contaminant
concentrations are unknown.
• If contaminant concentrations exceed maximum use concentrations.
• If gases or vapors have poor warning properties.
• In the case of high relative humidity.
• Oxygen deficient: An atmosphere with an oxygen content below 19.5%
by volume. Note: Air naturally contains 20.9% Oxygen.
• Immediately Dangerous to Life and Health (IDLH): An atmosphere that
poses an immediate threat to life, would cause irreversible adverse
health effects, or would impair an individual’s ability to escape from a
dangerous atmosphere.
Types of Respirators
Powered air-purifying respirator (PAPR):
Use a blower to force the ambient air
through air-purifying elements to the
inlet covering.
Are considered to be positive pressure
under most operating conditions.
However, they can be over breathed,
potentially making them negatively
pressurized for a brief period of time.
Types of Respirators
Escape-only respirator:
Emergency escape respirators are
intended to be used only during an
emergency to evacuate an area
where an unplanned airborne
contaminant is present.
They are not intended to be used
on a routine basis.
They do not require employees to
be fit tested.
Types of Respirators
Atmosphere – supplying respirators:
These supply the user with breathing air from a source independent of the
ambient atmosphere.
Two types:
Supplied-air respirators (SARs)
Self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA)
Operating elements:
Continuous Flow: Provides a continuous flow of breathing air to the
respiratory inlet covering.
Demand: Admits breathing air to the face piece only when a negative
pressure is created inside the face piece by inhalation.
Pressure Demand: Admits breathing air to the face piece when the
positive pressure inside the face-piece is reduced by inhalation.
Atmosphere - Supplying Respirators
Atmosphere – supplying respirators (continued):
Typical system components:
Compressor or Cylinder(s)
Air delivery lines
Air purification system
Reserve air supply
Carbon monoxide filter or alarm for
(oil lubricated compressors)
Air is supplied through a hose to
the worker’s face piece.
Atmosphere – Supplying Respirators
Supplied Air Respirator (SAR):
An atmosphere-supplying respirator
for which the source of breathing air
is not designed to be carried by the
Also called airline respirator, supplied
air respirators deliver clean breathing
air from outside the work area.
Also used in IDLH environments and
emergency response situations.
Atmosphere – Supplying Respirators
Self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA):
An atmosphere-supplying respirator for which the breathing air
source is designed to be carried by the user.
Supplied Air Respirators require Grade
D as the minimum quality air used in
supplied air respirator systems in fire
fighting, general industry, and hazmat
Atmosphere – Supplying Respirators
Self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA) (continued):
Grade D Breathing Air Requirements:
Carbon Monoxide (CO)
< 10 parts per million
Carbon Dioxide (CO2)
< 1000 parts per million
Condensed Hydrocarbons
< 5 milligrams per cubic
Noticeable Odors
The Compressed Gas Association (CGA) standard does not specifically
establish a limit for moisture; however, a limit of 66 parts per million is
necessary to assure proper function of CO scrubbing devices.
Filters and Cartridges
Particulate air filters:
• High efficiency particulate air filters also known as HEPA filters are at
least 99.97% efficient in removing particles that are 0.3 micrometers in
diameter and larger.
Filters and Cartridges
Particulate air filters (continued):
• 95% of all respirators are typically single use disposable respirators.
• HEPA filters are referenced in the standards as N100, R100, or P100.
• N, R, and P are filter performance designations when in contact with oil.
- “N” means NOT recommended for oil mist.
- “R” means oil mist RESISTANT (one-time use).
- “P” means oil PROOF (reusable)
Filters and Cartridges
Canister and filter cartridges:
A container with a filter, sorbent,
or catalyst, or combination of
these items.
Removes specific contaminants
from the air passed through the
Many respirator cartridges
combine a filter layer with a
chemical sorbent layer.
These types of canisters are
typically referred to as “stack”
Filters and Cartridges
Canister and filter cartridges:
Must be labeled and color coded
with the NIOSH approval label.
The label must not be removed
and must remain legible.
The “TC number” is no longer
designated on cartridges or filters.
Filters and Cartridges
Service life:
The period of time that a respirator, filter or sorbent, or other
respiratory equipment provides adequate protection to the wearer is
referred to as it’s service life.
Particulate filters are typically good until breathing becomes
Sorbent materials have several different options for determining
useful life. Factors for evaluation of service life include:
– Chemical Warning Properties
– Chemical Concentrations
– Identity of the Chemical
– Temperature and Humidity
Filters and Cartridges
Change-out schedules:
• OSHA requires end-of-service life indicators (ESLI) for organic vapor
and chemical cartridges. When no ESLI is available, a cartridge
change-out schedule must be established and implemented.
• Chemical cartridges tend to become saturated and no longer effective,
thus break-through can occur, exposing the respirator user. Where
applicable, cartridge change-out schedules will be established.
• Change-out schedules developed using mathematical models,
manufacturer's software, calculations, rules of thumb.
Respirator Fit Test
Respirator fit:
Proper respirator fit depends on the face
to face piece seal.
This can be effected by:
– Overall Fit (size and shape of
– Facial hair
– Facial scars
– Eye glass temple bars
Respirator Fit Test
Fit testing:
Prior to fit testing, the subject must be medically approved to
wear a respirator.
Before an employee uses any respirator with a negative or
positive pressure tight-fitting face piece, the employee must be fit
tested with the same make, model, style, and size of respirator
that will be used.
Respirator Fit Test
Fit testing (continued):
Employees using tight-fitting face piece respirators must pass an
appropriate fit test:
There are two types of respirator fit testing:
• Qualitative
• Quantitative
Fit tests must be passed:
– Prior to initial use
– Whenever a different respirator face piece (size, style, model or
make) is used
– At least annually thereafter
– Change in facial features that could affect seal.
Respirator Fit Test
Qualitative fit testing (QLFT):
It is a pass/fail method of testing the respirator-face seal. This is a
subjective test in which a test agent is presented and the subject is
asked while performing exercises whether they can sense the test
The OSHA regulations allow qualitative tests only for respirator use
in atmospheres where airborne contaminant levels are no more
than 10 times the PEL.
The following methods are allowed by OSHA:
– Irritant smoke
– Isoamyl acetate (banana oil)
– Saccharine Mist
– Bitrex
Respirator Fit Test
Quantitative fit test (QNFT):
• This is a more sophisticated method
of determining the fit of a respirator.
This method is used to measure how
well a particular respirator fits an
• An instrument is used to make an
assessment of the adequacy of the
respirator fit, by numerically
measuring the amount of leakage
into the respirator.
• The results of these tests are
reflected numerically and are called
fit factors.
Use of Respirators
Why use a respirator?
Respirators must be selected and used in accordance with a written
Hazard Assessment.
Respirators must be inspected before each use.
Inspect your respirator for the following:
– Intact and functional straps
– No cracks in the face piece
– Proper cartridge assembly
– Intact, clean and functioning valves
– Proper assembly of all parts
– Cleanliness
– Pliability of the face piece
Use of Respirators
Seal checks:
1. Positive pressure check:
Cover the exhalation valve with the
palm of your hand.
Lightly exhale to create pressure in
the mask.
Check for leaks (air flowing out of
the mask).
Positive pressure check
Respirator wearers must perform two types of user
seal checks each time the respirator is put on.
Use of Respirators
Seal checks (continued):
2. Negative pressure check:
Cover the cartridge intakes
typically with the palm(s)
Lightly inhale until the face piece
begins to collapse toward the face
Check for leaks (air flowing into
the mask)
Negative Pressure Check
If any leaks are detected, adjust the mask and
try again, if leaks continue, do not use!
Use of Respirators
Respirators cannot be used in these cases:
While using tobacco products.
While using chewing gum.
While eating or drinking.
When facial hair such as beards or
mustaches interfere with the seal.
Use of Respirators
Employees must leave the respirator use area:
In the event that they need to wash
their face and respirator face piece.
If they detect contaminants, changes in
breathing resistance, or leakage of the
face piece.
To replace the respirator or filter,
cartridge, or canister.
Use of Respirators
Cleaning of a respirator:
It is necessary to clean the respirator between uses.
Upon removing tight-fitting respirators:
• Remove and discard cartridges, if appropriate.
• Wash hands and face thoroughly.
• Disassemble the respirator and wash all parts thoroughly with
soap and warm water.
• Re-assemble and store the respirator properly.
Use of Respirators
Cleaning of a respirator (continued):
Respirators need to be cleaned before they are placed into storage
between usage.
Precautions must be taken to prevent the contamination of the
storage container. This may include covering or removal of filters.
Reusable respirators must be stored, when not in use, in a sealed
container and in a clean and dry location that is located away from
chemical use or storage areas.
Use of Respirators
Maintenance of a respirator:
Replace worn/deteriorated parts as needed.
Only use parts and cartridges approved for your brand and type
of respirator.
Parts and cartridges are not interchangeable between brands
and types.
Use of Respirators
Maintenance of a respirator (continued):
Maintain appropriate surveillance of work area conditions and
degree of exposure or stress.
Re-evaluate the respirator’s effectiveness when it may be affected
by changes in work area or exposure.
If you detect contaminant breakthrough, changes in breathing
resistance, or leakage of the face piece, the respirator must be
replaced or repaired before returning to the work area.
Also, leave the respirator area immediately if you experience
dizziness, disorientation, or any other unusual symptom that could
indicate possible exposure.
Protection Factors
Assigned protection factors (APFs):
Numbers are assigned to the respirator which reflect the degree of
protection offered by its style type.
• APFs are assigned to generic respirator types by NIOSH.
• APFs are used to determine the
type of respirator needed to
adequately protect workers under
various exposure conditions.
• The ”Protection Factor” is valid
only if the wearer passes the
appropriate type of fit test
according to respirator type.
Protection Factors
Assigned protection factors:
Half-mask, air-purifying, with appropriate cartridges:
Supplied-air, half-mask, operated in demand mode:
Powered air-purifying, loose-fitting hood or helmet:
Supplied-air, continuous flow, equipped with hood or helmet:
Air-purifying, full face piece, with appropriate cartridge:
Powered air-purifying, tight-fitting face piece, with appropriate
Supplied-air, full face piece, operated in demand mode:
Protection Factors
Assigned Protection Factors (continued):
Supplied-air, tight fitting face piece, operated in continuous flow:
Self-contained breathing apparatus operated in demand mode:
Supplied-air, half-mask, operated in pressure demand:
Supplied-air, full face piece, operated in pressure demand:
Self-contained breathing apparatus, pressure demand mode:
Supplied-air respirator, full face piece, operated in pressure
demand mode with an emergency egress bottle:
Protection Factors
Maximum use concentration (MUC):
The maximum use concentration of a specific contaminant for which a
respirator may be used.
The MUC is calculated by multiplying the established exposure limit for a
specific contaminant (such as an OSHA Permissible Exposure Limit or PEL)
by the assigned protection factor of a respirator; or APF x PEL.
Example: The PEL for benzene is 1 ppm.
Maximum Use
Half face
1 x 10
10 ppm
Full face
1 x 50
50 ppm
1 x 100
1000 ppm (IDLH)
Respirator Program
A respirator program consists of:
A written program with worksite-specific procedures is required when
respirators are necessary or required by the employer.
A written program is NOT required if the only respirators that are
used are filtering face piece respirators (dust masks) on a voluntary
The program must be kept up to date to reflect changes in
workplace conditions that affect respirator use.
The program must designate a program administrator who is
qualified by appropriate training or experience to administer or
oversee the program and conduct the required program evaluations.
Respirators, training, and medical evaluations must be provided at
no cost to the employee as required.
Respirator Program
Voluntary respirator use:
When only filtering face piece respirators (dust masks) are allowed
to be used strictly on a voluntary basis, medical evaluations, fit
testing and a written program are not required. However, all
employees who voluntarily use dust masks are required to receive
Appendix D of the respirator standard either verbally or in written
If respirators other than filtering face piece types are used on a
voluntary basis, appropriate elements of a written program are
required to be implemented (medical approval, fit testing and
Appendix D).
Respirator Program
The elements of a respirator program:
The respiratory protection program for “required use” and “tight-fitting”
respirators must include and address procedures for:
Program administration
Written program availability for each respirator user
Hazard assessments
Proper respirator selection
Standard operating procedures (respirator use)
Employee training
Medical evaluations and fit testing
Program evaluation and record keeping
Respirator Program
Medical evaluations:
Medical evaluations must be provided to determine the wearer’s
ability to use a respirator, before fit testing and use.
Respirator usage places an additional strain
on the heart, lungs, and temperature control
of employees.
A physician or other licensed healthcare
professional (PLHCP) needs to perform
medical evaluations using a medical
questionnaire or an initial medical
examination that obtains the same
Respirator Program
Medical evaluations:
The medical review of the questionnaire could
result in one of the following:
– Approval for all respirator use
– Approval for limited respirator use
– Recommendation for a particular type of
respirator use (e.g., PAPR)
– Request for further medical evaluation
(physical exam)
– NO approval for respirator use
Respirator Program
Selection of respirators:
An appropriate respirator must be
selected and provided based on the
respiratory hazards to which the worker
is exposed considering all user factors
that affect respirator performance and
reliability. Remember, air-purifying
respirators do not provide oxygen!
Select respirators from a sufficient
number of models and sizes so that the
respirator is acceptable to, and correctly
fits, the user.
Respirator Program
Selection of respirators (continued):
Select a NIOSH-certified respirator that shall be used in compliance
with the conditions of its certification.
Identify and evaluate the respiratory hazards in the workplace,
including worker exposures and identification of the contaminant’s
chemical state & physical form.
Where exposure cannot be
identified or reasonably
estimated, the atmosphere shall
be considered IDLH.
Respirator Program
Program evaluation:
Evaluations of the workplace must be
conducted as necessary (at least annually
is required) to ensure the effective
implementation of the program.
Employees that are required to use
respirators need to be consulted to assess
their views on the program effectiveness
and to identify and correct any problems.
Respirator Program
Program evaluation (continued):
Records of medical evaluations must be retained and made available
for the duration of employment plus 30 years.
A record of fit tests must be established and retained until the next fit
test is administered.
A written copy of the current program must be retained.
Written materials required to be retained must be made available
upon request to affected employees and OSHA.
Medical records must be maintained for 30 years beyond the last date
of employment.
Respirators are an important element in protecting workers from
airborne hazards.
Engineering and work
practice controls must
be evaluated to
determine if they can
reduce employee
exposures before
placing an employee in
a respirator.
Summary (continued):
Various respirator types are available for specific contaminants and
differing work environments.
Before an employee can be assigned a respirator they need to be
evaluated to determine if they are medically able to wear the
respirator safely.
Employees need to be fit tested to assure that the respirator fits them
Training for the care, use, and limitations must be provided based on
the respirator type and the hazards associated with the usage of the
Respiratory Protection
This form documents that the training specified above was presented to the listed participants. By signing below, each participant acknowledges
receiving this training.
Trainer’s Signature:
Class Participants: