Sustainability evaluation of community managed

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Sustainability Evaluation
of Community Managed
Rural Water Supply Schemes:
A Case Study
26th June, 2012
V. K. Sinha
Kapil Lall
Presentation Structure
 Background
 Conceptual framework of sustainability
 Sample for the study
 Findings from the field
 Likelihood of sustainability
 Conclusion
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Background
Massive investments in RWSS, yet level of service is far from
satisfactory.
 Since long sustainable delivery of RWSS has been a cause of
concern for those of us who are involved in trying to improve
RWSS service whether as donor/govt./NGO/Program Manager
etc.
 Sustainability is a key criteria for financing by external
agencies.
Like human health, health of projects/programs needs to be
periodically assessed by conducting comparative study on field
data and envisaged outcomes preferably by an external
agency.
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Background
 URWSSP is
Uttarakhand.
under
implementation
in
the
State
of
 The Indian Institute of Public Administration (IIPA) was
engaged by the State Government in 2011 for carrying out
sustainability evaluation study in order to
 monitor the project from a sustainability perspective
 to get an idea about the adequacy of the project design & the quality
of implementation of the project processes.
Built around sustainability issues and concerns of URWSSP.
It takes a hard look at our limited achievements, point outs
areas where our approaches need to be improved and sets
some challenges.
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URWSSP in Brief
Integrated
Delivery of
Water Supply,
Sanitation &
CACMP
To improve the effectiveness of RWSS services
through decentralization and increased role of
PRIs & involvement of local communities in the
Sector Wide Approach (SWAp).
Project Period
Project Cost
2006-2014
US $: 224 Mn
Implementing
Agencies
UJN, UJS,
PMU
Target
Habitation
Target
8270
Project Area
ODF
470 GPs
Target
Entire Rural
Area
CACMP
25% of NC/PC
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Conceptual framework of sustainability:
A Service is Sustainable when
It can be operated &
Maintained at local
level
It requires feasible
external support
only.
It functions and is
being used;
Sustainable Service
Its management is
institutionalized
It is able to
deliver an
appropriate
level of benefits;
It remains operational
beyond the life
cycle of the initially
installed equipment;
It does not negatively
affect the
environment;
It has all its O&M
costs recovered;
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THE SAMPLE FRAME AND SIZE
Technology Used
26%
14
Gravity 50
Pumping 3
10
3
90
97
100%
21
40%
80%
60%
18
40%
34%
20%
0%
Garhwal
Gravity
Kum aon
Pum ping
These schemes had operated
for 6 months or more than 6
months and were in the O&M
Phase.
27
16
10
 A total of 1529 users were
covered during the study.
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Findings on
Physical Condition
 The sustainability of the sampled schemes was assessed by looking in to
its physical, institutional and financial as well as the social condition that
ensure its sustainability. (21 Indicators)
 A large majority of sampled SWAp schemes are functioning satisfactorily,
and providing improved as well as regular water supplies to users.
Functional Status of Schemes
120
100
97
95
96
%
80
60
40
20
5
3
4
0
Garhwal
Kumaon
Functional
Total
Non Functional
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Findings on
Physical Condition
 The quality of civil works related to
each of these schemes covered was
exceptionally good and rigorous
procurement and quality control
procedures seem to have been
followed at the time of the
construction
 The sufficiency of yield from the
source and its regular and timely
measurement has very important
implications
for
sustainability.
Therefore, much more
focus on
CACMP works should be taken up.
 Regular water testing at the grass
roots level (UWSSCs and Users)
needs to be vigorously propogated.
,
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Findings on
Physical Condition
Marked improvement has been
reported in the use of household
toilets, hygiene practices among
users, and overall environmental
conditions
in
the
covered
habitations.
The level of training on financial
management and book-keeping ,
catchment area protection, as
well
as
the
preventive
maintenance has been found to
be satisfactory however, the
training
in
these
project
components
needs
to
be
strengthened further to better
assist UWSSCs for carrying out
various O&M functions.
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Findings on
Institutional Condition
Functional Status of UWSSC
 The UWSSCs have been duly formed as
stipulated in all sampled schemes, and are
functional in all except two cases. The
composition of UWSSC members reveals
sensitivity towards ‘inclusiveness’ and gender
concerns.
 Though the bye-laws of UWSSCs have been
formulated and duly approved as stipulated,
there is much to be desired in the effective
functioning of Social Audit Committees.
97
95
96
100
80
%
 The cohesion, and community participation has
been remarkable in most cases.
 There is a satisfactory level of community
involvement in O&M functions, and this has
been a major achievement in most schemes.
 Adequate care of assets takes place in most
schemes. However, this element requires
greater attention as assets created get older and
worn out.
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60
40
5
20
4
3
0
Garhwal
Kumaon
Total
Functional Non Functional
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1
Findings on
Financial Condition
 Users charges have been fixed in accordance to guidelines, and in
many cases revised upwards.
 The effectiveness of the tariff system and its enforcement is
satisfactory. Incentives for timely payments or penalties for late
payment should be introduced.
 The average revenue exceeds average expenditure in most
schemes, and thus the financial health of most schemes is
satisfactory.
 The status of payments by over 77 percent of sampled users is
good and regular. It may be said that the current status of tariff
payments is good, and the default rate manageable at the
moment.
 Greater attention needs to be paid regarding the book keeping
and records. If need be refresher training should be organized for
UWSSCs members.
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Findings on
Social Condition
 The schemes have achieved a creditable degree of inclusiveness of the
weaker and vulnerable sections through providing them with the
required water supply.
 The schemes have had a remarkable impact in significantly improving
water availability in the covered habitations.
 The appreciation and approval for the scheme among users is very high
invoking greater participation, and involvement among users.
 The vast majority of users have a very high sense of satisfaction, and
appreciation regarding the management of the schemes.
 They are also very positive in their responses regarding the quantity and
quality of water being provided to them.
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Findings on
Social Condition
The schemes have effectively reduced the drudgery of
water collection;
 More than 60% of the users have reported that they save
up to 3 hrs. or more each day for water collection
Time Saving Due to Convenient Availability of Water
Value in %
50
40
30
20
32
45
38
24
10
44
17
0
Upto 1 hrs.
Upto 3 hrs.
Garhw al
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Kumaon
More than 3
hrs.
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Findings on
Social Condition
 The overall user satisfaction
related to the functioning of
SWAp schemes is very high, and
thus positively reinforces, as well
as
strengthens
participation
along with compliance. The
resulting social condition is thus
enabling,
and
contributes
significantly
to
ensuring
sustainability.
Reduction in Water Borne Diseases
100
90
87
80
70
60
%
 The schemes have also had a
significant
impact
on
the
perceptions of users with regard
to
improved
health
and
sanitation.
50
40
30
20
10
7
6
No
Don,t Know
0
Yes
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Initiatives for improvement

District level workshops of all stakeholders will be organized to give
feedback to the GPs and UWSSCs on problems, issues &
interventions planned at the village level;

Cross visits to sustainable villages will also be arranged.

Refresher training of UWSSC members will be provided especially in
financial management and book keeping ;

Prizes and awards will be instituted for UWSSCs who address their
issues and problems before subsequent sustainability monitoring
exercise.

Micro-level interventions at the village level and Macro-level policy
adjustments at District and State levels will be initiated on the basis
of feedback;
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Likelihood of sustainability
• Bullet
1

Remote
& inaccessible location of most habitations.
Felt need
• Bullet 2
• Bullet
3

Demand
for an improved service by the community.
 Manifestation of the demand by initial community
contribution & commitment for O&M.
Appropriate
Informed Choice
Technology
Participation
Participation
 Information on system options, as well as cost and technical
implications of each system were made available to the
community.
Technology options selected with the communities and
adapted to the community’s capacities and needs.
Involvement of community’s from the very start of the
project cycle.
Users in the driving seat.
Use of local language.
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Likelihood of sustainability
LOW
O&M
COST
Appropriate
TARIFF
Technology
• Bullet
1

Gravity
based water supply schemes.
• Bullet 2
• Bullet 3
 Personnel costs low as GPs have appointed local
residents as caretakers.
 Timely revision of tariff by GP/UWSS to keep pace with
increasing O & M expenses ;
 Cessation of Political Pricing;
 Willingness to pay.
Technical Skills at local level.
Participation
O&M
Easy availability of spare parts.
Regular preventive maintenance.
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Likelihood of sustainability
Revenue
VS
Expense
• Bullet 1 revenue exceeds average expenditure in most schemes.
Average
• Bullet 2
Financial
• Bullet 3 health of most schemes satisfactory.
Current status of tariff payments is good.
Default rate manageable.
Legitimate and organized community structure
Appropriate
Management
Technology
Capacity
Post
Participation
implementation
support
Legal status to UWSSC
Established management capacity of GPs/UWSSCs to sustain adequate
services.
 UJS as back stopping agency for providing technical assistance in case
of major breakdowns and natural calamities during post implementation
period to PRIs.
 Periodic refresher training for village level functionaries.
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Conclusion
 Sustainability starts at the planning phase.
 Careful planning of O&M systems must already be
completed during the planning and design phase because
effective O & M is essential for sustainability.
 An overall picture is emerging that communities are capable
of managing their water supply systems but they need
backup support.
 Perhaps 3 – 4 years period is too short to prove sustainability
conclusively.
 Evaluation is learning: No solution is forever.
“If anything can go wrong, it will”
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Murphy’s Law
Page 2020
Thank you
for your attention
Contact Information: Kapil Lall e. mail: pmu_uttaranchal@rediffmail.com
V K Sinha e. mail: swsm.uttarakhand@gmail.com
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